Malaysia: The number of drug users continues to rise and uses measures to protect its people. Malaysia stands firm against the legalisation of drugs. Our policy policy both incorporates demand and supply reduction. We are taking the necessary steps to reduce drug addiction as well as prevention and treatment. We take measures against all trafficking activities. Its lead to successful seizures in 2017. 31,000 clients have benefited from rehabilitation centres during 2017. Training of trainers in the community improvement programme was implemented to protect communities from falling prey to drug abuse. The world drug problem must be collectively addressed. There is no one size fits all approach according to their national policies. We recognise the 3 conventions must remain to tackle the world drug problem. We recognise 2019 as the target date to take stock of our efforts.
Peru: We are deeply committed to health and wellbeing of individuals at the local and national level. We emphasise education and the family to guide children. Crop eradication has allowed us to offer alternatives to farmer for licit cultivation, contributing to our population. We place confidence in exchange of ideas and practices that will give us a strong response to the world drug problem. We hope the 2019 review will be successful in addressing our challenges to achieve our targets.
Mongolia: We align ourselves with statements made by the G77 and China. Many delegations have pointed out the growth of the drug market, and this is important in paving the way for the 62nd session. I wish to reaffirm my government commitment to implementing the conventions. We have continued to improve our response to the drug problem and have adopted new policy documents in suppressing drug related crimes. The criminal code in Mongolia was revised in 2015 to criminalise offences related to drug trafficking. The number of offenses has risen by average of 30%. Child offenses have doubled. This is alarming. We urge all UN bodies to assist with enhancing our capabilities.
Kazakhstan: drugs control requires us to improve our work and band together. We need to utilise the power of the UNODC and develop measures for cooperation. As part of our commitments we support Afghanistan, and have a police training program at a cost of $16 million, as well as building hospitals and schools in that country. In order to fight the drugs business we are improving out legislation and working from best practice. We need to be mindful of e-payments being used to fund the drugs business. We need to look at therapy and treatment for those with drug addictions. The other issue is global banking and payment systems – this requires the international community ensure that crypto-payments do not become the standard for drugs payments.
Moldova: We are first in our region which would not have been possible without help from UNODC. We must punish those who traffick drugs, and provide care for those with drug addictions. We are viewed as the best practice worldwide for harm reduction in prisons. We still need support to strengthen the rule of law as a new democracy and welcome expertise from other member states. We face great challenges through corruption. Human trafficking has become a priority for us and we have been working to identify and help victims, but we still need assistance.
New Zealand: We have elected a new government which is investigating reform in drug policy and a health approach to drug use and addictions. We advocate for a compassionate approach to drug policy. Our priority is the legislation of medical cannabis and an inquiry into mental health and addiction issues. This legislation will introduce a defense of people who are terminally ill and are found in the possession of cannabis. Previous application of medical cannabis has been difficult to obtain. Mental health and addiction services are complex, sadly demand in New Zealand has grown significantly and access has been difficult. Our inquiry seeks to address this. Indigenous people and poor groups suffer greatly, and we need to address this. New Zealand will also being looking at its criminal justice system – we will be taking a health approach rather than a criminal justice approach. Incarceration is a poor use of public money and waste of the lives it impacts. It is time for a more humane approach to justice. There is no perfect approach, and we must be addressing the harm of use and misuse. We believe our approach will help us make significant progress. We wish to note our strong support of the 2016 outcome document. We continue to support human rights inclusion and condemn the use of the death penalty.
Malta: We align ourselves with the statement made by the EU, and I will add a few remarks. We are not sending young to people prison, instead we are helping them seek help for their drug use. We have found this to be very successful. And we are exploring medical cannabis prescribed by medical practitioners. We will introduce a ban on all new psychoactive substances across europe as part of our presidency.
Netherlands: We have been implementing the UNGASS outcome document, and learning from each other’s successes and failures. We are committed to improving monitoring tools. We need a realistic picture of the world drug problem. The health approach as the basis of a drug policy is widely accepted. We have a long experience with health based policies, such as harm reduction, but still have to improve. Out of 179 countries will injecting drug use, only half have some sort of needle exchange program. We need to ensure the safety and health of our general population. A policy of disrupting and stopping drug trafficking is important, and I endorse proportional sentencing. It needs to be based on evidence and scrutiny. Even failures can be lessons from us all, and can’t be scare to mention these.
Cuba: Cuba maintains a zero tolerance policy with regard to illicit drugs. Despite our geographical location, drug-use tends to be very low in my county. We should focus on the well-being of individuals.
Afghanistan: We produce the world’s largest amount of heroin and last year was particularly bad. It is a shared responsibility and a global issue. We have suffered the most – according to official figures heroin is worth $62 billion, but only a fraction is seen by my country. We are firmly committed to fighting narcotics. Our law enforcement have arrested over 2,000 criminals and this is largest number in our region. We have implemented alternative livelihood programmes and treatment centres. We invited regional experts to produce a regional strategy. Insecurity, lack of funds and regional cooperation prevents us from greater success. We need to focus on precursors to combat heroin producers. Narcotics have destroyed us the most, and we need help.
Sudan: We reaffirm our commitment to the 3 conventions and to the political declaration of 2009. We also subscribe to the Outcome Document of 2016. Together, these are the framework for how we shall address the drugs problem. We are trying to address the issues of drug use – we have a comprehensive policy which addresses this issue and brings together supply and demand issues. Cannabis accounts for the highest share of seizures in Sudan, followed by tramadol. We call to list tramadol to be put under some sort of control to inhibit use. We’ve seen a large increase in trafficking in different pills from the sea, land and air. We reaffirm the need to criminalise these substances to be able to stand up to drug trafficking groups. Trafficking and consumption provides opportunities for drug trafficking networks and makes it attractive for criminals. In 2017 we were able to launch a campaign which saw the destruction of 2.5 tons of cannabis. We initiated a number of high level visits with our neighbours, which helped to combine our efforts and share best practice. We appeal to donor countries and UNODC to support us with training and investigating. We need countries that are underrepresented, like Sudan, to have a larger role in the UNODC.
Libya. I thank you and Mr. Fedotov for his introductory statement. I align with the Group of 77 and China and the Africa Group and Arab Group. I reiterate our commitments with the 3 UN drug conventions and the need to respect the noble principles of human rights. We reiterate our commitment to UNGASS 2016 and its recommendations. We have identified the drug threat early on and have taken measures at all levels. We succeeded until a certain point. But today we face difficulties to reduce the supply of drugs. We have weapons proliferating and there is a lack of control over drugs. We have stepped up our efforts to counter these issues, but this includes technical assistance. We focused on awareness in educational settings, preparing surveys in the main cities to identify the scope of the issue, etc. We have tried to establish a more effective system with a comprehensive strategy on drugs. We hope the UN through relevant institutions will provide true help and cooperation so that we can achieve the objectives included in the strategy. This justifies the need for us to be trained on anti-money laundering and exchange of information. We support any regional and international efforts that ensures the sovereignty of states and the principle of non-interference of states.
India. Let me congratulate you on your chairmanship. We have been having success with streamlining our drug policies and implementing the UN drug conventions. They provide scope to address the world drug problem. Illicit drugs are used to fund illicit activities in terrorism in India. We have targeted illicit cultivation of opium and cannabis and enforcement to eradicate has been effective. Cooperation is also a priority. We have established mutual legal assistance treaties and mutual agreements to address organised crime and terrorism. We have extended capacity building across borders to Bhutan and Myanmar. We are following a three-prong strategy: community based interventions, treatment, rehab and social reintegration, training of service providers. The emergence of NPS needs more international cooperation. We reiterate our commitment to ensuring access to substances for medical and scientific purposes, and remove barriers that hamper OST, palliative care and pain relief. We also work to better control precursor control. We welcome the INCB guidance to avoid diversion. I compliment the international community for their understanding in addressing the world drug problem. We have reasons to feel gratified. I am confident that we will give a new impetus to achieving a drug free world.
Jordan. I highlight the CND’s leading role in devising drug policies. It develops policies and measures to counter the world drug problem. I underscore our commitment to all 3 UN drug conventions as legal authoritative measures to counter drugs. We reiterate our full adherence to the 2009 Political Declaration and the 2014 JMS and 2016 UNGASS outcome document. Together, all these documents are a roadmap for our global objectives in dealing with the world drug problem. Our kingdom looks forward to the review of the 2009 Plan of Action to take stock of our achievements and discuss the need for a new deadline to ensure a full implementation of our commitments therein. Our country is keen to step up its efforts to combat both drugs and crime. Our majesty confirmed Jordan is standing firmly against drugs and weapons worldwide. Jordan has tackled drugs issues by propping up the institutional framework, including with demand and supply reduction policies. We have taken a holistic approach including through the implementation of the 2009 Political Declaration. We have updated our laws and enacted a narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances law in 2016 and attach importance to international cooperation. We have also reduced drug supply. We forged international and regional cooperation, exchanged expertise and concluded bilateral agreements. We have been ranked 2nd among Arab states in cooperation and field work. Various drug control bodies have been developing regulations and statutes to control drugs, while following recommendations of the INCB and the UNGASS outcome document, while ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes. We have used direct online tools to prevent the diversion of drugs. Within our control of NPS, and manufacturing and use, we pursued our efforts to control it. We updated our laws and continued to schedule these substances. We conducted campaigns that had a great effect at curbing use. We must hear mention of the special circumstances of our area. The threats of armed conflict make it difficult to control drugs. It is breading grounds for the spread of substances and has stretched our capacities and added security burdens with an influx in refugees. This needs exceptional efforts to provide support and assistance to our authorities. We reiterate our commitment to step up cooperation with regional and international bodies, and underscore support for UNODC to strengthening national and international efforts in countering the world drug problem.
Vietnam. The world drug problem has caused many challenges and causes a threat to social and economic security. The golden triangle is still affected by opioid cultivation. We face increasing risks from NPS spreading rapidly causing insecurity in the Mekong region and the whole world. We welcome efforts of the international community in addressing the world drug problem and welcome the work of CND and UNODC. We welcome the 2009 Political Declaration, the 2014 JMS and the 2016 UNGASS outcome document. We are resolute against the legalisation of drugs and strive to achieve a drug-free society. In recent years, we have established an effective policy of drug control in collaboration and solidarity of the people. Apart from law enforcement, we implement education on the harmful effects of drugs among youth. We carried out treatment programmes to help people reintegrate. We try to build a community based treatment system. We work with others to address the world drug problem through bilateral and multilateral frameworks. We work with UNODC to develop cooperation including enhancing border capacity and mobilise the whole region. In the past few years, the 2009 Political Declaration has been a key document. We hope this will be a key document to build further in 2019. We should strengthen cooperation at national, regional and international level, we should balance demand and supply. 2019 should focus on implementing the 2009 political declaration. In the context of challenges on drugs, we ask for increased financial support on treatment and support for drug addicts. Finally, on the ARQ, we should simplify the questionnaire in line with the current situation of each country. We hope the discussion will involve more experts from developing countries to improve the ARQ and data collection. We will continue to work with other countries and UNODC in our global fight against drugs.
Tunisia. Thanks to UNODC and INCB heads in the implementation of the 2009 Political Declaration and international cooperation to address the world drug problem, in addition to the 3 drug control conventions and the 2014 JMS and 2016 UNODC outcome document. I associate myself to the Africa and Arab Groups and the Group of 77 and China, especially with regard to international cooperation and based on the principle of balanced and shared responsibility. On the 2019 vision, we also share these groups’ position. We reiterate our commitment to all international commitments. We propose that the ministerial segment in 2019 focus on extending the deadline for the implementation of the 2009 Political Declaration on the basis of a timeline to review what has been implemented. We have striven to implementing our goals from 2009 and the plan of action to promote psychological health with the objective of getting rid of addiction. We try to discourage this scourge. We revised article 52 of our law so that judges have the power not to order detention but to summon a person to appear before the court. Then the public prosecution can summon them to appear before the court and pronounce sentences for 5 years for drug use, or 1 year with a fine. This is a good way until we re-enact a new law. We have also re-opened a treatment centre, which will happen in March 2018, with a capacity of 52 beds. It was closed in 2011 and so we hope that international partners will support us in this project. We should adopt radical approaches to root out this scourge within a comprehensive approach, taking into account social, economic and political approaches.
Poland. We share the vision of the 2016 UNGASS. We acknowledge that the development of policies based on health and people’s problems will depend on the involvement of member states and international institutions in the implementation of the UNGASS outcome document. Our position is in line with that of the EU. In our view, the fundamental condition for conducting effective approaches includes cooperation and coordination of efforts balancing demand and supply reduction, solidarity and shared responsibility. The drug problem has gone beyond traditional substances with NPS. It is crucial to develop a coherence health and security strategy. We consider our national drug strategy to be an example of this approach. By not losing sight of the need to combat drug related crime, we should seek more support for human rights, access to prevention and therapy, reduction of risk factors, and financial resources. We find it increasingly hard to control the use of the internet. We must develop self awareness for health and security in the face of the non-medical use of fentanyl and other substances. For the same reason, we need to encourage other groups such as women, youth, ethnic minorities, etc. In developing and implementing these actions, we must respect the opinions of civil society. Support and solidarity means civil society should play a key role, and no one should be left behind and excluded. We need to build hope for the health and quality of life of those in need. In Poland, despite the lack of evidence for cannabis based preparations, we took the decision to allow patients and their relatives to access these substances even if there is no clear clinical proof. The human needs focused approach should ensure access to preparations for anybody who needs them. We emphasise the objection to the capital punishment, disproportionate crimes. We ought to act according to the knowledge of addiction whose basic data is linked to medical systems. We should analyse our international response to the world drug problem, and we should focus on indicators attached to the rule of law, access to treatment, well being and security to reduce risk factors and invest in protective factors. This CND should be a fruitful stage to discuss 2019 and analyse current trends, threats and challenges and setting new courses of joint actions.
Honduras: The world drug problem is a global challenge and therefore calls for collective effort based on dialogue and cooperation. We are part of the consensus and support a sustainable development agenda. We are committed to a balanced strategy to combat the world drug problem. We have been affected by drugs and organised crime and this has only increased due to poverty and climate change with a particular impact on children and women. We are active in prevention, reduction and educational services. We are committed to combat money laundering and asset laundering. We need a holistic approach to the world drug problem based on human right and principles of shared and common responsibility. We are much in favour of sustainable development to ensure nobody is left behind.
Sri Lanka: Despite the progress, illicit drugs still pose a threat to security and the sustainable development goals. We identified challenges at the global and national levels. There is a clear need to asses the problem and new challenges at all levels. We have established several projects by our task force and we reaffirm our commitment to tackle the drug problem and its total elimination. Transit countries require help to address these challenges. And we continue to engage in combating illicit drugs. We intercepted 1,700 kilograms of cocaine in one consignment.
Nepal: To tackle this common challenge we need coordinated implementation. Significant progress has already been achieved in this regard, but much more needs to be done. We believe in the need of enhancing international cooperation for access to drugs for medical purposes and to prevention illicit diversion. I would like to reinforce that Nepal support all 3 covensions. We are close to two of the largest opium producing countries – but the fight against illicit drugs is firmly on the right track. 73% of drug users in nepal have first used before the age of 20. We have increased investment of treatment as well as improving the quality of the treatment.
Zambia: We align ourselves with the Africa Group. Drug trafficking and abuse imoses serious health and economic costs throughout the world and sustainable development. Zambia has developed policy in implementing the sustainable development goals in national policy, that will strengthen treatment. Calls for legalization of drugs such as cannabis go against the conventions and public health. We need firm guidance on the use of cannabis for medical purposes. We reiterate that combat the world drug problem needs a combined and integrated approach. We remain committed to implementing international instruments. Thank you.
Dominican Republic: The world drug problem represents a global problem for the international community and the solution should be based on a wide and comprehensive approach in harmony with the sustainable development goals. I stress that our strategic approach is based on human rights from a gender perspective. UNGASS 2016 represents the most recent consensus by the international community. The 2019 deadline is a valuable opportunity to evaluate our progress. We need better indicators to carry out a realistic review, and we look forward to that. My government continues to design measures based on treatment and social reintegration of drug users back into the general population. We are one of the states in our region that has adopted alternatives to imprisonment through drug tribunals. We are often used a transit points between transit and consumer countries due to our geographic location. We participate actively in the global container program among others. We drafted laws against money laundering and terrorism financing. And we support the abolition of the death penalty.
The Holy See: We reiterate the good work of organisations working to combat the world drug problem. It calls for international co-operation. The commission on narcotic drugs stated solving the problem requires a shared responsibility requiring an evidence-based approach. Efforts are made to engage all stake holders as allies. We would be foolish not to unite with local and regional facilities, CSOs and religious organisations, as well as the family. The family is a stakeholder in our efforts to combat the world drug problem. Pope Francis has highlighted the role of the family by describing it as the first school of human values and has a role in promoting our ultimate girl: a world free from drugs. Addiction is a serious problem to the individual. Serious evil cannot be countered by govt. programmes alone. This was acknowledged by the CND last year. We must teach children and young people to resist pressure to use drugs. We should support families to pass on this information to allow everyone to say no to drugs. The world drug problem constitutes a serious threat to public health and safety, to families and communities. Information should place children on a path away from drugs through employment and training, in short: through a health life. The inherent human dignity of everyone, ensuring truly balanced approach. Avoiding a punishment centred approach and applauds states who are able to provide true balance in their anti-drugs efforts. We will collaborate to actively promote a society free of illicit drugs.
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) thanks the Commission on Narcotic Drug for inviting the Office to speak under item 3 during the General Debate of the 61st Session of the Commission. The United Nations, its agencies and Member States are bound by overarching obligations under articles 1, 55 and 56 of the UN Charter to promote “universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms.” The cross-cutting UNGASS 2016 approach constitutes a new and better linkage of the objective of drug-control – protection of the health and welfare of humanity – with the key priorities of the UN system, including the SDGs. In his last week’s statement to the Human Rights Council on global update of human rights concerns, the High Commissioner for Human Rights encouraged the continuation of this structure for future UN drug policy debates. OHCHR stands ready to provide support to States and other stakeholders, including civil society organisations, for the promotion and protection of human rights in addressing drug problems, and in the implementation of human rights commitments included in the Chapter 4 of the UNGASS Outcome Document 2016. In Colombia, OHCHR, in partnership with UNODC and the national authorities are currently working on a joint project for the inclusion of a human rights-based approach in Colombian national drug policy. In its 2014 report on prison conditions in Tunisia, the Office recommended, inter alia, that Tunisia reform its drug policy to adopt the principle of progressive sanctions for crimes of drug consumption, particularly for first time offenders. In April 2017, the Tunisian parliament adopted an amended version of its national drug law; which now allows judicial discretion in sentencing for drug consumption, including the possibility of imposing a suspended sentence or a fine. This constitutes a welcome development and is expected to have a significant impact on reducing prison overcrowding in the country. OHCHR will continue to advocate for wider review of Tunisian drug law and policy; and provide technical support to Tunisian authorities for the further inclusion of human rights based approach to the national drug law and policy. Last month, with the support of the Government of Germany, OHCHR convened an expert seminar in Bangkok on “Drug-related Offences, Criminal Justice Responses and the Use of the Death Penalty in South East Asia.” The seminar brought together a group of regional legal experts, academics and human rights defenders, as well as UN human rights and drug control experts. During the discussion, the experts examined drug trafficking trends in the region, national policies, public perceptions, and human rights challenges in the fight against drug trafficking and drug-related crime in South East Asia. Participants also examined the human rights dimensions of the application of the death penalty in cases of drug-related offences. OHCHR is currently cooperating with UNDP and other partners concerning the drafting of international guidelines on human rights and drug policy. We hope that these guidelines will provide the necessary guidance to States and other stakeholders in the development and implementation of national drug control policies that are grounded in States’ obligations under international human rights law. Chairperson, OHCHR encourages all Members States of the United Nations to fully cooperate with special procedure mandate holders of the Human Rights Council, providing them full access as requested and implementing their recommendations, in particular, those related to human rights and drug policy. We also urge this Commission to take note of the work of the special procedure mandate holders that bears relevance to issues related to human rights and drug policies. The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) mechanism of the Human Rights Council also provides a unique opportunity to advance human rights in relation to drug control efforts. UN human rights treaty bodies continue to formulate recommendations to assist State parties in fulfilling their obligations under the respective human rights treaties, while addressing drug problems. We urge States to fully implement those recommendations of human rights treaty bodies. Additionally, national human rights institutions, which can provide human rights guidance to relevant national authorities involved in drug control efforts, should be engaged and supported. Human rights defenders, including members of the legal profession, health workers, journalists and other stakeholders, who are involved in the promotion and the protection of human rights in drug control efforts, should be provided with full protection from any threat, harassment or reprisals.
Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Our order has been proud to support the UNODC on several projects and initiatives. Substance abuse is one of the leading cause of avoidable death. It is one of the global priorities. It is our global responsibility to take effective prevention measure that protect people, particularly children, from drug abuse. This is one of our key priorities. We hold a youth forum on a yearly basis, with 150 youth leaders having been inspired and given their voice to influence world drug policy. We believe that youth is the most valuable asset for the future – investing in their health is investing in a sustainable future for all of us. We look forward to supporting the UNODC youth initiative. We pledge full support in addressing the problem of substance abuse from a humanitarian perspective. We call on members to join forces to support this work.
Inter– American Drug Abuse Control Commission: We must evaluate using an evidence based approach, and collect reliable and objective data. We assist member states with collecting this data, and we are exploring regional networks since drug problems do not respect national borders. I would like to highlight the therapeutic justice program in Mexico. Our plan of action recommends a gender perspective in all levels of evaluation and the involvement of women in a levels. We are providing assistance to countries without national drug policies.
Pompidou Group and its 39 Member States: Thank you Madam Chair. Excellencies, delegates, civil society representatives, ladies and gentlemen. I am pleased to deliver this statement on behalf of the Pompidou Group — the Council of Europe’s cooperation platform on drug policy — and the 39 member states that make up the Group. As a Council of Europe entity, the Group embraces and upholds the mother organisation’s core values: human rights, democracy and rule of law. The Pompidou Group considers it extremely important and relevant to emphasize once again that — as all other policy fields — drug policy must be developed, implemented, monitored and evaluated in full respect of human rights. This means, first and foremost, that the death penalty for drug related offences is not in line with human rights obligations. The same goes for inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and torture, and — a fortiori — for extrajudicial executions. Second, people who use drugs have an indisputable right to equitable access to health-care services. A corollary of the right to health is access to, and availability of controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes. The Pompidou Group notes the emphasis on human rights in the outcome document of the UNGASS 2016. The Group urges Member States to implement the commitments and recommendations in the outcome document, and expects that all steps taken by the CND acknowledge the need for the full respect of all human rights. The Pompidou Group also wishes to highlight the need to incorporate a gender perspective into the understanding of the drug problem and to mainstream the gender perspective into the design and implementation of drug policies. To achieve these objectives, the Pompidou Group considers of crucial importance the close collaboration and shared responsibility among states, relevant international and regional organisations, and UN entities, as well as the many civil society organisations working in the area. The Pompidou Group is exploring the possibility of providing states with tools to facilitate the assessment of the steps involved in drug policy from a human rights perspective. To this end, the Group commissioned a report on Drug Policy and Human Rights and adopted a statement on bringing human rights into drug policy, both of which have been presented at a side event on the occasion of this CND meeting. On the outcomes of drug policy measures, the Group’s publication on “Costs and Unintended Consequences of Drug Control Policies” was already presented [at the previous CND] in 2017. The Pompidou Group would also like to underline that civil society actors — including representatives of people who use drugs — have a legitimate right to be heard. The Group’s policy paper on government interaction with civil society on drug policy issues can serve as inspiration. The Pompidou Group acknowledges that the UNGASS outcome document and CND resolution 60/1 represent the most recent — constructive — consensus; they set out necessary and promising elements for action towards the next milestone in 2019. The Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe is determined in its efforts as a facilitator for cooperation. We stand ready and look forward to continued collaboration with the CND and other UN entities towards our common goal of responding in a humane way to the many challenges that arise from the world drug problem. Thank you.
Drugs and Organised Crime Unit Asia: Asia is one of the most effected regions of the world. It has the highest rates of opium and heroin seizures. Asia has been pursuing partnerships towards the objective of the 2009 plan of action. They have dealt with demand and supply reduction as well as awareness raising. There are regional projects across Asia relevant to alternative development processes. Asia is ready to serve as a global partner for alternative development and the global campaign against illicit drugs.
League of Arab States: Despite efforts at all levels, narcotic drugs continues to grow and continues to be a source of great concern. The inability of any state to confront this, reaffirms the need for states to cooperate further. We have addressed this problem through a series of measures. We need to work within the frameworks of the Sustainable development goals.
Chair: We will suspend Item 3, and move onto Item 4.