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UNGASS special segment, second meeting

Singapore: offers full support in carrying out duties and functions. Every country affected by scourge of drugs. Singapore is no exception. Because of close proximity with the golden triangle. In early 1900s, opium was legal in Singapore. It’s social costs were severe , breaking family unit etc. In 1986 opium was banned. The approach taken recently, of harm prevention, has helped to keep Singapore relatively drug free. This would not have been possible without a robust regional framework to tackle this global drug threat. We pledge our support to the CND, who should remain the principle. Public health is important, but it cannot be considered purely as a public health problem. We must protect Singaporeans, and out country’s security. Drugs destroy family and threaten children. Today Singapore is rated 11th on the UN human development index this is based on the integrity of our country’s security. This safety and security allows our children to grow up in an environment without the threat of drugs. Keeping people free of this is crucial. The following creates this environment; tough enforcement, rehabilitation, active engagement of communities to a support reintegration. The harm reduction, needle exchange etc approach is not relevant in our context. Drug overdose death is rare in Singapore. A study found that harm reduction does not help, and does not account for damage imposed on families. We do not support calls for drug legalization or decriminalization and is contrary to international drug conventions. A literature review conducted by our experts confirmed the psychological harm of cannabis. Information on its efficacy and safety are not well founded. There is no need to decriminalize or legalize cannabis. There is no need to create these markets, and risk increasing drug use as a result. We respect that each context is different, and different countries require different solutions. But we want a drug free country and a drug free ASEAN. We want harm prevention, not harm reduction. The upcoming UNGASS and 2019 declaration are key milestones. ASEAN shares the concern of many in this room on the world drug problem. Our leaders have recognized the problems facing the drug control system. The three conventions taps into the collective wisdom of all nations. Why we work separately on issues, we must respect one another’s sovereignty. ASEAN strongly supports the three conventions , and implementing them has saved the ASEAN from the scourge of drugs. We will achieve our vision of Drug free ASEAN. We recognize a balanced approach is needed between supply and demand. Our approach includes education and rehabilitation programmes. We have taken efforts to fight supply side problems, by taking a tough stance on drug traffickers to disrupt the network of traffickers. It is important that good laws come in concert with good law enforcement practices. We stand firm against drugs, and resolute against calls to legalize or loosen drug laws.

Mexico: Thanks Ecuador and CND. UNGASS is of great importance because it allows countries to look at progress made and lessons learned. The belief, shared by all, that we should place people at the center of our polices should help us to arrive at the right conclusions. All governments must work towards a global answer. Focusing efforts of the international community on punitive approaches is not enough, it has led to high economic and social costs. Today the challenge is to design national and international and regional drug control policies that give a more human and balanced face to those policies. Drug trafficking in our country has caused serious damage to our country, and exacerbate the challenge… we have recently tried a more balanced approach, focusing on creating opportunities for young people and alternatives to drugs. We are having an open and democratic debate on the issue of marijuana legalization. A comprehensive and balanced approach goes beyond the punitive laws employed by members states. In Mexico we are studying changes in our legislation to mainstream the gender perspective into our efforts. Drug polices should be rooted in public health, public safety. We are advocating a balanced approach: in favor of public health, to deal with the social harm, guarantee better access to controlled substances, give more priority to the proportionality of sentences, opposition to the death penalty, strength in fight against arms trafficking and organized crime including financial incentives, promoting greater consistency between UN agencies, promote the agenda of sustainable development, gender mainstreaming.

Portugal: Congratulates chair. Portugal offers its full support. Stands by the position of the EU. The coming UNGASS is an important and unique opportunity to tackle world drug problem. The EU and members states have been very engaged in the UNGASS preparatory process. Portugal has several concerns and principles that we would like to see reflected. Balance human rights and health based approach. Drug use is a public health issue. The approach by Portugal has been considered a model. Drug addiction must be treated and not punished. It must incorporate a human rights perspective. We under no circumstance support the death penalty. Another principle is a commitment to a harm reduction approach. Decriminalization is apart of a comprehensive approach, which must involve harm reduction services and socially integrate drug dependent individuals. We must endeavor towards a harm reduction and human rights based approach. We must keep the conventions as cornerstones, and within the framework of this treaty we have the flexibility to implement more humane policies. We must stress the increased involvement of civil society.

Brunei Darussalam: This is a common and shared responsibility. Supports Singapore’s position. We must realize the vision of a drug free ASEAN. Treatment, rehabilitation, alternative development must be apart of our approach. There is not one size fits all approach in addressing drug issues. The diverse political, social context and social norms must be taken into account. We recognize the three drug conventions as the cornerstones of all drug policy. We must have balanced approach to this problem. A balanced approach must consider scientific evidence, while protecting woman, youth and children.

Italy: Align our selves with the EU position. It is up to us to try and find some synergies. We need strong international cooperation. We need to be flexible to meet new challenges. We have made progress, but more must be made. We must ensure that our polices respect human rights and are truly health orientated and focus on protecting youth. Every cent spent on harm reduction is a precious investment. Drug polices can only be effective if they are centered on the human being. We must ensure access to essential medicines and access to a range of services for drug users. We need diverse and proportionate responses. I underline here the idea of proportionality. From trafficking to minor offenses, we must avoid over incarceration and prison overcrowding, a goal we recently managed to achieve in Italy. We must abolish the death penalty for drug related crimes. It is important that we cover this. Outcome document might contain some of this already, but it is important to be more ambitious. Proportionally is an important objective of the outcome document. Capital punishment is not included in the conventions, and is a violation of human rights and undermines cooperation between nations on this problem. The implementation of the sustainable development agenda works towards this aim, and so other relevant policy decisions should be bought into synergy with the drug problem. We must promote role of civil society and community based organizations.

Saudi Arabia: Thanks board and CND. Confirms commitment to international conventions. Drug problem a nightmare for the whole world. We must combat it to defend societies. We must fortify our societies against the drug problem. Requires a systemic change to reduce demand and supply. We believe the problem is an international problem; it requires the international community to conquer it. Saudi Arabia is keen to fight this problem with whatever it takes. We have enhanced cooperation with relevant bodies and have taken steps to limit trade. We have given drug users treatment and care rather than taking them to court. We have hospitals specializing in care and treatment. From a preventative side we have launched a project to prevent use of drugs. 8 programs, they include, families and children, media, environment, global network, center for consultation unified communications, research, (?) …

Germany: The stakes are high. We are convinced that UNGASS must be considered as an opportunity for members states to pause and think. Never has debate been so intense and controversial on the issue of drug policy. We have no doubt that the three UN conventions should remain the cornerstones of the international drug control system. A balanced strategy as implemented in the EU, within the framework of the conventions. Legal regulation of medical cannabis is being implemented. Cannabis is a controlled substance under ‘91 convention. Making cannabis a legally regulated for non-medical use does not match conventions, but nonetheless nations are free to try alternatives. Not enough has been done in harm reduction, demand reduction or supply reduction. We do not know if farmers have benefitted from alternative development or how many cultivate illicit drugs because we have no data on this. What we do know is that illicit cultivation of coca is a direct consequence of a lack of development.

France: Endorses the EU statement. We are on the cusp of an important phase in international cooperation. Must use this CND to set ourselves ambitious goals for the UNGASS, and prepare ourselves to achieve those goals. Hear from all stakeholders in an open and constructive session. We hope that during the UNGASS, an ambitious and common position will be adopted. Scientific evidence leaves no doubt about the effect of drugs on individuals. WHO recently published a report on this very topic. Threat that drug trafficking poses for the security of our state. Increase in violence, particularly in urban areas. UN drug conventions provide a suitable framework to combat drugs by protecting individuals and societies. Conventions structure the international community. Call on all member states to abolish the death penalty. Increase in international cooperation. First, treatment for drug users is not a privilege, it is a right. Important to make available treatment that lives up to the recommendations of the international community. The effectiveness of harm reduction measures is proven. France is helping to promote harm reduction, notably with the Global Fund. Second, law enforcement cooperation to counter drug trafficking and resulting illicit financial flows. Strengthen police and customs cooperation. Strengthen judicial cooperation. Promote rule of law. Support training and cooperation. Need to be proactive to set up our actions. Must commit ourselves more to prevention. Adoption of risk behaviours and consumption of illicit substances undermines our societies. Develop a broadened understanding of prevention. On the sidelines of the special session, will hold an initiative to reduce the consumption of drugs and violence and ensure populations have the treatment they need.

Tajikistan: Major challenge for central asian states and global community as a whole. Drug trade inextricably linked with organized crime, terrorism, and other threats President views efforts to counter the illicit drug trade as integral to the fight against terrorism and organized crime. Requires the joint effort of the international community. All drugs confiscated arrived in via Afghanistan. Proclamation of a five year plan for global measures to prevent drug addiction and promote healthy lifestyles. Reflected in the joint declaration of a high level conference. Called on the UNGASS to support the initiative. Covers agriculture and poverty. Call for your support of our president’s initiative. Stabilize the drug situation of the country. Closing drug smuggling channels. Implement four national state programs in the national drug control sphere. Adoption of a national strategy to combat illegal drug trade from 2013 to 2020. Outcome of the strategy over the past three years shown that we have reduced drug abuse, and negative impact on health. Phase two of drug strategy implemented since 1989. UNODC regional program to support counter drug efforts. Program from 2015-2019 focuses on capacity building. 2015 we began implementation of phase 6. Many other programs and projects underway. Region began hosting meetings of minister on countering the illicit drug trade.

Spain: Endorses the EU statement. UN drug conventions are enough to design effective and efficient policies and actions. Believe that alongside these conventions, other documents are relevant, like the UN declaration on human rights. Welcome SDGs. Prioritize a public health approach in drug policies. Demand reduction has to cover all aspects, such as prevention, harm reduction, rehabilitation, etc. Respect the fundamental rights of the individual. If a drug user commits a crime against property or other people, we use objective instruments or criteria in courts to assess alternatives to punishment. Convey our concerns about the therapeutic use of cannabis. In nature, there are few harmless substances. The risk they have varies depending on how they are administered. Same substances that cure can also harm. In Spain, do not allow marketing of product for therapeutic purposes unless it has been subject to strict benefit and harm analysis. Should only use cannabis for therapeutic purposes if the purpose for which it is used is scientifically proven and is the best option over conventional treatment.


Mr. President

The delegation of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay greets you and the distinguished members of the Table auguring that your performance be fruitful. Relay on our collaboration to fulfil the recommendations of Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, when he urged the states to use UNGASS 2016 as an “opportunity to conduct a wide-ranging and open debate that considers all options”.

Uruguay congratulates the effort and contribution of all those who have collaborated to make Road to UNGASS 2016, besides its imposed direction, an ongoing debate. To those that work from the States, to the invaluable involvement of the social civil organizations, to the Universities, academic centers, journalists, analysts and leaders of opinion. To the efforts to achieve consensus and agreements of regional organisms such as CELAC, OEA, UNASUR, MERCOSUR, also to the European Union, African Union, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) that have developed an inclusive process with important contributions of NNUU agencies like the Nacional Program of Development of the UN, World Health Organization (WHO), Office High Commissionaire of Human Rights (OHCHR) and United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). We still have a hard task in the search of an inclusive consensus, one that is not a repetition of common places and that steps up and reflects the richness of this debate. We are still on time for this not to become a new frustration and to move forward into a realistic debate that is not a repetition of the current situation.

In a note of Chinese poetry to let a hundred flowers bloom and that a hundred schools contend, we must extend this debate, without diminishing the common and shared responsibility that we have in the framework of international cooperation. To guarantee that we arrive at UNGASS with the richness of diversity and a true debate.

Mr. President

Road to UNGASS 2016 has inaugurated a new state of political consensus on the basis of diversity. This may or not be reflected in this text and that is a challenge these days. We will achieve that UNGASS considers all options or we will repeat the same phrases. Facts are facts. There is an extended, wide and fermentable debate which is undeniable. We have different views, there are new and renewed approaches and most importantly, we will live with those because far from a weakness they are a strength. There are new languages and concepts: these must take part in the new definitions, move forward. In our region coexist different approaches and we achieve consensus. Only one week ago, on March 4th, the ministers of Latin America and the Caribbean in Santo Domingo, under the Presidency Pro Tempore of Dominican Republic, issued a statement directed to UNGASS 2016 (which has been distributed in the room) in which it is stated:

“Inspired, as we have already done, on the principle of unity in diversity (…) we declare our commitment to address the world drug problem and revert its serious social impact, always within the framework of full respect of Human Rights and the right of the States to formulate their own drug policies based on their realities, promoting and guaranteeing access, without any restriction, to prevention, comprehensive care, treatment, rehabilitation and social integration of the individual (…) Reaffirming that three United Nations conventions on drugs and other relevant international instruments, such as the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights continue to be the cornerstone of the international system for drug control (…) Recognizing, as indicated in the Declaration of Quito, that the social, cultural and economic diversity of the countries in the region must allow the formulation of diverse, broad and comprehensive policies, within the framework of the three United Nations conventions on drugs and other relevant international instruments; fully respecting their sovereignty and territorial integrity.

The Declaration of Santo Domingo states:

“To promote programs to reduce risks, to prevent and to revert the social impact generated by the drug world problem;
“The importance of applying the legal principle of proportionality in penalization to establish different levels of responsibility for those involved in drug trafficking, (…) respect to due legal process (…)
“To achieve, in line with national legislations, as long as impunity is not generated, the development of alternative measures in the application of justice”

Other regional organization have pronounced themselves in the same way:

The States of MERCOSUR, in the Declaration of Brasilia of the XX Reunion of Authorities of Drugs, in august of 2015, state that:

“The legal framework of the three United Nations Conventions on drugs if sufficiently wide and flexible to allow us to approach our different national experiences; and acknowledging the different efforts that the nations of MERCOSUR perform to approach the world wide issue of drugs in the region from their respective realities, restating the importance that all approaches, including new approaches, be grounded in scientific evidence (…) in the search of effective solutions”

The South American Council on the World Wide Problem of Drugs of UNASUR, approved in august of 2015, affirms:

“All the approaches of the politics on drugs must be understood as answers to the challenges that we face related to all aspects of the world wide problem of narcotics, as a social economical phenomenon always grounded in the respect to Human Rights, the intercultural diversity, the scientific evidence, public health and social inclusion”

The Organization of American States, in its 43rd General Assembly in 2013 held in Antigua, Guatemala, pronounced similar terms emphasizing 1. “to advance in a coordinated manner in the search for effective solutions (…) with a comprehensive, strengthened, balanced, and multidisciplinary approach with full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms (…) 2. That they encourage the consideration of new approaches to the world drug problem in the Americas based on scientific knowledge and evidence”

Mr. President

Uruguay promoted in the 51st Period of Sessions in 2008, the resolution 51/12 which promotes the due coordination of instruments of Human Rights to the system of drug control. Declaration which today is included in the report of the High Commissioner for Human Rights issued by resolution 28/28 of the Counsel of Human Rights. In the High-level Segment of 2009, Uruguay insisted upon the necessity of a wide and open debate, which made a serious and demanding balance of the Plan of Action and the goals set in UNGASS 1998. We didn’t give ourselves the opportunity. Today we face the same situation. Voices are raising and the evidences of the failure of a strategy completely unbalanced which has provoked severe consequences starting from a predominantly repressive approach are overwhelming.

Mr. President

The title of Alain’s Resnais inspires us: “The war is over”. An irrational war, sustained from a fundamentalist approach of strict prohibition with the pretension of being a single line of thought. The single line of thought is also over. We unleashed an absurd against substances, and we proposed in 1998 to eradicate all the crop and have a world free of drugs. We prohibited so much that now, besides having a war, we lack access to those which ease pain and heal. We forget that the etymology of “drug”, is Pharmacon, which in Greek means at the same time remedy and/or poison.

It has also been an irrational war due to the disproportion of the penalty to the offense, the implementation of the death penalty and the criminalization of users. Due to the creation of an indiscriminate front of repression against the entire chain of production, distribution and consumption of drugs which has increased the violence without weakening the organized transnational delinquency. The worst of an indiscriminate war: it has taken legitimacy from the just execution of the law. The extended front has not allowed to concentrate the blows to the more important links such as asset laundering, corruption and white collar criminals. Strictly speaking, this form of regulation of the illicit market has generated impunity.

Mr. President

Let’s quote those who know about the art of war. General Vo Nguyen Giap, heroe of the Vietnamese resistance against colonialism and imperialism in Dien Vien Phu and Saigo, recently diseased military genius, stated: “the most important thing in war is men, not weapons”. Western thought took some time to learn this lesson. Sir Basil Lidell Hart in The strategy of indirect approach sustains: “…the longest way round is often the shortest way there”. None of this has been understood in this crusade against drugs.

In the words of ONU’s ex-Secretary-General, Kofi Annan: “I believe that drugs have destroyed many lives, but wrong government policies have destroyed many more.”

“The “war on drugs” has not succeeded. Some estimate that enforcing global prohibition costs at least $100 billion (€90.7 billion) a year, but as many as 300 million people now use drugs worldwide, contributing to a global illicit market with a turnover of $330 billion a year, Prohibition has had little impact on the supply of or demand for drugs. (….) The widespread criminalization and punishment of people who use drugs, the over-crowded prisons, mean that the war on drugs is, to a significant degree, a war on drug users — a war on people.” (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kofi-annan/why-its-time-to-legalize- drugs_b_9298502.html)

The report of the High Commissioner for Human Rights states: “The World Health Organization has recommended the decriminalization of drug consumption, including the use of injectable drugs, since by doing so it could perform a fundamental role in the application of its recommendations on interventions in the health sector, including the harm reduction and in the treatment and attention of people that use drugs. UNAIDS has also recommended the decriminalization of drug consumption as a mean to reduce the number of infections by HIV and to treat AIDS.”

Mr. President

A different vision on how the substances market functions as well as a more efficient and human regulation of it is needed. It is clear that the supply and demand dynamic does not distinguish between legal and illegal areas, it follows laws that intend to maximize profit and promote growing consumption at all levels. This is evident in substances with legal circulation that have severe repercussions to public health such as alcohol and Tobacco. Uruguay has the faculty to speak about the market interests since it applies the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The free market is not interested in health or human wellbeing. Leaving substances circulation in the hand of an illegal supply and demand dynamic is even more dramatic and regulation that is based on repression has proven to be inefficient and even more distorting.

Uruguay has always maintained a position that is clear and without ambiguities claiming the proper conjunction of the Human Rights instruments and the policies towards drugs together with the need of an honest debate. We have exposed our national position to UNGASS 2016: “Axes for an integral approach of the substances policies”. With this integral approach we are promoting a new model for the regulation of the cannabis market, complying with our Constitution and in the use of our sovereign right with observance to the international instruments. This approach possesses strong institutionalism in the interest of public health and is in permanent and demanding revision. It answers to our history, to the Uruguayan cultural peculiarities and to our tradition. It does not intend to be an applicable solution to other countries, and as our fellow Caribbean brothers, we don’t want a “copiadera” (to copy paste solutions). This is an approach that is being implemented in dialogue with civil social organizations, with the states of the region, with the cooperation of the University of the Republic of Uruguay, research centers and health professional’s organizations.

The International Narcotics Control Board just visited our country. We had an excellent dialogue and in spite of controversial opinions on conventionality, they presented interest to follow this initiative.

Public policies must inform, prevent and educate. They most also reach to those who decide to continue the consumption with the final objective to reduce harm and to regulate supply and demand.

The right to health, understood as a state of social and physical wellbeing, means more than an economist mechanism to reduce demand. It means social development, prevention, community work in the territories, low demanding intermediate devices. Also proper scientific treatments for troubled consumption, including the illness that is addiction. Our politics must address to real human beings in their contexts, with their histories, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The State must prevent adequately, prohibit adequately, reduce damages and help to administrate the risks. It must guarantee human rights always. We will continue to cooperate as an active member of the international community in the search of happiness and wellbeing of all men and woman, with the aspiration to achieve peace and coexistence, a fair and sustainable human development. This is the unrenounceable commitment of Uruguay of common and shared responsibility in the world wide problem that is drugs.

Nigeria: Associates itself with the statement of the African Group. Nigeria welcomes the UNGASS as it provides an opportunity to review the progress and challenges in the world drug problem. Despite efforts of international community, global drug problem persists. We need to collaborate and act more on the basis of the UN drug conventions, and our goals in to 2009 political declaration. Nigeria remains committed to tackling the global scourge of drug trafficking, illicit production, cultivation, and abuse. Drugs are connected with other organized crimes. Concerned about the call for decriminalization of cannabis. A call for decriminalization will undermine the current efforts aimed at reducing the cultivation of this crop. Will provide a window for organized crime to flourish. Cannabis is the major drug of abuse in the West Africa subregion. Need harm reduction programs to effectively address cannabis abuse. Primary concern is to reduce negative consequences of drug abuse, and promote the right to good health, especially among youth. Recognize efficacy of alternative development for addressing cannabis cultivation. Call on member states with success stories on alternative development to share their experiences. There are linkages between illicit drug trade and other transnational drug crimes. Nigeria will continue to invest in drug control measures. Nigeria will sustain the implementation of measures to promote judicial cooperation, including legal assistance, transfers of proceedings, cooperation in law enforcement, targeting drug trafficking, and other forms of international cooperation. We have sustained the use of an online system to confirm the legitimacy of transaction in precursors. Nigeria takes note of the ECDD which states that levels of ketamine use are declining around the world. Ketamine in the anaesthetic agent used in low income countries. NPS. Increased use of internet in drug trade. Continue to take effective and practical measures to protect citizens, particularly youth, from harm of illicit drugs. Encouraging drug dependent persons to access treatment. We all need to collaborate under principle of shared responsibility. Call on member states to respond to serious challenges posed by links between drug trafficking and terrorism, trafficking in persons and firearms, and money laundering to finance terrorism.

Poland: Poland expresses appreciation for open style of work implemented by UNGASS board. Poland fully sympathizes with the position emphases by Netherlands on behalf of EU. Emphasizes the essential role of health and human rights. We are steadfast in our opposition to the death penalty for all crimes and particularly drug related ones. Ideally, drug polices should be as far from the ideological and political realm as possible. Reducing stigmatization of controlled substance users has become apart of our approach. There is a growing need for collaborative and coordinated action. Poland comprehensively fights the imposition of NPS by banning manufacture. We consider this issue as a serious challenge to public health in coming years. Traditional methods and programmes are not effective. Consequently we need to increase spending on public education and prevention. Reinforcing and extending the social base is crucial to tackling drug problems and substance addiction. We should invest more effort into building drug policy that response to local peculiarities. We believe that successful supply reduction is impossible without the presence and involvement of civil society. Poland welcomes the fact that the international security focus has a realistic view of the problem.

Pakistan: Expresses gratitude to the board. Thanks UNODC. The drug problem undermines sustainable development. 6.5 million are affected by drug use globally. The complexity of this challenge continues to grow. We must reinforce the principle of common and shared responsibility. The overarching values must be protecting the family, and trying to achieve society free of drug abuse. A balanced approach between demand and supply is needed. We must focus on treatment, rehabilitation, reintroduction into society. We must scale up collective efforts to eliminate illicit drug cultivation. Efforts in Afghan have led to a massive reduction in the production of opium. The developed countries must make efforts to reduce demand in their own countries. NPS threat is alarming. The 2030 development goals establish a clear link between security, rule of law and sustainable economic development – this agenda will compliment our ability to tackle the world drug problem. Legalization and regulation of drugs will only lead to increased use and demand; no use should be for any other purpose other than research and medicine. Pakistan is a main transport route for drug trafficking. Our national policy is balanced, is people centered and is based on respect for human rights, including a full range of treatment and services for drug users. Promoting regional cooperation is a big part of our approach. We must tackle the scourge of precursor chemicals. Turns attention to UNGASS 2016. These past few months have been intense. We are confident that that we will be able to produce an action-orientated document, it should help us to achieve the right balance between supply and demand. National legal frameworks should be kept in mind. The three conventions must be considered as the cornerstone of drug policy – there is no need for review. The flexibility of the conventions must not be interpreted as an opportunity to legalize substances. We do not need a fresh declaration, the 2009 declaration is sufficient. The countries that create the most demand should pay the most attention to reducing demand. We should not embrace controversial concepts like harm reduction. Pakistan is not in favor of such approaches.

Korea: Established national drug control strategy in 1999 in the belief that the most effective way to address the drug issue was through supply and demand control. Protect youth from drug abuse. Government provides support by funding hospitals and direct support to individual drug addicts. We have been organizing a drug conference. Reiterate that international cooperation is essential in all drug-related matters.

Jordan: The sustainable development agenda accords great importance to fighting crime, eliminating poverty. This includes the efforts to defeat the drug problem. We need to focus on implementing the outcome of the document. We need to base the programme and recommendation on regional and national realities. We are seeking to step up our efforts to counter drugs and crime. We want to ensure that the supply and demand requirements of the declaration of 2009 are met. We proclaimed that the year of 2016 was the year of the fight against drugs in education. Our view is that anybody who uses drugs has been led into temptation. We view it as a health issue, a behavioral issue, an economic and education issue. We have set out to strengthen our internal operations. We have strengthened cooperation at international level by electronic means, to counter the diversion of precursor chemicals. We have particular problem with synthetic commercial hashish – as a result we have taken steps to schedule these NPS to counter this emerging trend. There has been immense pressure on Jordan in recent years. The situation of insecurity and the refugee problem has aggravated the situation. Jordan reiterates its commitment to increasing cooperation.

Brazil: Welcome discussions towards UNGASS, with active engagement of all stakeholders. World drug problem remains an extremely difficult and complex challenge. Even before UNGASS itself, we could say that important progress has been made in consideration of the world drug problem. Three conventions remain a legal basis for the international drug control regime. Drug policies should focus on the health and welfare of mankind. World drug problem should be addressed in full respect of human rights. Importance of evidence-based policies. Important and positive role played by INCB. Brazil appreciated UNODC and INCB’s contributions today with a critical view of harsh sentences for minor offences, and abolition of the death penalty for drug offences. Brazil has actively participated in UNGASS preparations. Attach highest importance to international cooperation. Regard for different national realities. Held a ministerial meeting earlier this month in Santo Domingo. Brazil fully subscribed to the declaration. Brazil has been highlighting guidelines and principles such as a human rights approach, promotion of harm reduction, access to controlled substances, new indicators and metrics for drug policies, and balance between supply and demand reduction. People who use drugs should not be imprisoned. Too high a number of people, particularly Brazilians of African descent and poor backgrounds, continue to be incarcerated. Let me emphasize that our national contribution to the UNGASS was a call on ourselves to continually review our own drug policies and their implementation. While we remain encouraged by constructive discussions, regret that we have not made progress on two key issues. One, the document should also include a racial perspective, recognizing the needs of ethnic groups. Two, death penalty for drug offences. Respectively propose that countries take steps towards a moratorium for the death penalty. Brazil will continue to engage domestically and abroad. Thank civil society. Highlight the presence in Vienna of leading Brazilian civil society organizations. Confident that the outcome document will be action-oriented and forward looking.

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