Home » CND Intersessional Meeting – 11 October: Operational recommendations on Supply reduction and related measures; effective law enforcement; responses to drug-related crime; and countering money laundering and promoting judicial cooperation

CND Intersessional Meeting – 11 October: Operational recommendations on Supply reduction and related measures; effective law enforcement; responses to drug-related crime; and countering money laundering and promoting judicial cooperation

Chair: I need to leave at 1pm, so please stick to the advised time limits for interventions. Today we continue our thematic discussions, and the Chapter we are discussing is the third one: Supply reduction and related measures… I will call on speakers according to the flow of the discussion.

UNODC: We will cover many topics related to supply reduction. Firstly, I will focus on building networks to counter transnational organised crime. UNODC has developed several tools to support in this area – including assessment tools, tools for criminal justice analysis, electronic surveillance, money laundering, confiscation of proceeds, container control, maritime crime, and so on. Many member states and partners remain unaware of what tools exist, and often recreate things from scratch. Our Law Enforcement Training Network (LE TrainNet) is able to share curricula, training tools, methodologies, experiences – for law enforcement agencies, border control agencies etc. This work is supported by INTERPOL, CEPOL among others. We have also built an entry-level platform for law enforcement officers in the field, to give access to all tools regardless of author. This is a prototype for the time being, and will be expanded. The next step is a meeting in November to harmonise materials and datasets, bringing together existing law enforcement training networks from around the world – to ensure better exchange of intelligence, information and to support multilateral interventions. This includes prosecution networks and intelligence networks. We are also developing minimum requirements for effective law enforcement responses (including drug trafficking).

INCB Secretariat: Article 12 of 1988 Convention provides the mandate on precursor control, a kind of prevention to stop chemicals from reaching criminals who use them to make drugs. So my colleagues monitor the licit trade in these chemicals – using tools such as PEN Online – and identify the weak points where diversion or attempted diversion takes place. The systems that we have are real-time, no-cost to governments, and pretty efficient. Through this monitoring, we have practically eliminated diversion of these chemicals to the illicit market from the licit market through international trade. The remaining problem is the national procurement of these chemicals, and the increased use of non-scheduled chemicals. Obviously, we cannot control everything – this will not work. Criminal groups just adjust their methods and chemicals they use. INCB has been running operations such as Project Prism and Project Cohesion with governments. These involve the exchange of intelligence (via the PICS platform). Our options are to increase direct exchange of operational intelligence, or we cooperate better with the private industry. We will work to promote the idea of private-public partnerships, and are happy to answer any questions.

Chair: I would like to now open the floor for discussions.

Guatemala: It is difficult to see why transit countries should have to pay the same price as a producer country. Taking into account the need to work on all of these areas, we have operations on security with a priority focusing on borders to dismantle and eradicate criminal activity in our country. At our ports we have the container programme and programmes in cargo control to improve port safety and security and prevent illicit activities. Our efforts focus on border areas and villages, areas of poverty, where we work on supply reduction hand-in-hand with support to foster development. We are also working on the reduction of arms trafficking and money laundering, which are fundamental to control violence and tackle drug trafficking. This means that technical assistance is of the essence, but we also need cooperation from other states to promote joint investigation coordinating actions that are beneficial to all.

Colombia: We believe that it is very important to strengthen these intergovernmental platforms and networks that we have, together with new projects for the exchange of information and to maximise the use of available technology – including having academic material on these issues. Implementing these strategies with technological content, we believe that we can maintain control over precursor and pre-precursor transit, and we need to overcome all the legal barriers in the way of all of this, and to address the imbalance between countries. It is also important, with UNODC support, to prevent and tackle drug-related crimes to improve national security. Different regions have different needs when it comes to training. On money-laundering, we need to define the high-impact measures that will have an impact on transnational organised crime networks. It is important to have constant operational information, with the principle of common and shared responsibility and joint judicial responses. We propose the creation of a continuous monitoring mechanism of financial flows that may relate to criminal activity, with the aim of promoting and supporting reliable information in this area. Colombia is evaluating the legal and health viability of the drug court models for lower-level drug offenders. We have two main pilots underway, with the prospect of applying the model nationwide. We are making progress against recommendations on alternatives to incarceration and proportionality.

Slovakia (on behalf of the European Union): We are highly supportive of the UNGASS recommendations for enhanced cooperation on drug-supply reduction. Upholding the rule of law and efficient criminal justice is as important as ever. We would like to see applied in practice more measures to address the vulnerabilities that drive, enable and perpetuate any form of organised crime, to enhance the cooperation in criminal matters, including judicial cooperation, and to focus on individuals and organisations responsible for illicit activities of a large scale . The EU Drug Market Report released a few months ago indicates that the drug market remains one of the biggest criminal markets. Evidence-base is at the heart of the EU drugs policy. We put strong emphasis on developing monitoring systems that allow for the collection of reliable and objective data, essential for a better understanding of the drugs phenomenon and on the basis of which effective decisions can be taken. The further development of drug supply indicators allows the EU to gather more accurate, reliable, comparable and high-quality data on drug markets, drug supply reduction and drug-related crime across EU Member States. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction is working hard to achieve this. Data collection tools were developed and guidelines were produced for a number of drug supply sub-indicators. In 2016 for the first time the market size estimates for the main drugs, using a demand-side approach, were made to evaluate the size of the illicit drug market across EU Member States. It is estimated that EU citizens spend over € 24 billion every year on illicit drugs.

To have a more systematic response to countering serious and organised crime, including drug trafficking, European Union leaders established six years ago a new methodological instrument, the EU policy cycle for organized and serious international crime. This instrument allows us to base cooperation on this cross-border crime phenomena at EU level on the concept of intelligence- led policing and brings all the existing initiatives and all the EU Member States and bodies together. The starting point of the EU policy cycle is the EU Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) in which Europol delivers analytical findings that are then translated into political priorities, strategic goals and operational action plans in order to implement EU policy. On this basis, the Union then agrees on a limited number of priorities for each policy cycle. 9 priorities were defined in the framework of the current policy cycle for 2013-2017, among them: reducing cocaine and heroin trafficking to the EU and disrupting the organised crime groups facilitating the distribution in the EU as well as reducing the production of synthetic drugs in the EU and disrupting the organised crime groups involved in synthetic drugs trafficking.

Operational actions are set up for each priority. The EU Policy Cycle has become a large-scale endeavour with 260 operational actions running in 2016. A strong emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the results achieved, which also feeds into the development of the next policy cycle. That independent evaluation is currently ongoing. In March 2017 Europol will produce a new SOCTA report which will be the basis for defining the new EU crime priorities for the next EU policy cycle for the years 2017-2021. The success of the EU Policy Cycle depends on the commitment and leadership of EU Member States. So far the policy cycle has been recognised as a valuable concept to focus EU Member States’ cooperation on the most pressing cross-border crime phenomena, in other words intelligence-led policing is being implemented at EU level. In this regard, we would like to highlight the role of Europol – the European Union’s agency for law enforcement cooperation which supports its Member States in preventing and combating all forms of serious international and organised crime and terrorism. Based on Member States’ intelligence, Europol’s analytical findings are translated into political priorities, strategic goals and operational action plans.

And to end, let me refer to another important initiative, established by seven EU Member States and co-funded by the EU Internal Security Fund. This body is the Maritime Analysis and Operations Centre (Narcotics), which is based in Lisbon and is shortly known as MAOC (N). MAOC (N) proves to be an efficient way for Member States to pool their law enforcement capabilities with a view to intercept drug shipments in the Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea. From 2007 to July 2016, MAOC (N) supported the coordination and seizure of over 116 tons of cocaine and over 300 tons of cannabis. The estimated resale value for the cocaine seized amounts to roughly € 7 billion, the cannabis seized is estimated at a resale value of over € 3 billion. Countering transnational organised crime and drug trafficking is a key component of the EU’s external cooperation programmes on drugs such as the Cooperation Programme between Latin American and Caribbean countries and the European Union on drugs policies (COPOLAD); the Cocaine Route Programme, active in 38 countries in West Africa, Latin and the Caribbean and the Heroine Route Programme designed to counteract organised criminal groups operating along the heroin route. Before finishing, let me also stress the importance of tackling drug-related financial flows. For this purpose in the EU Action plan we have foreseen to “Strengthen EU judicial co-operation in targeting cross-border drug trafficking, money laundering, and in the confiscation of the proceeds of drug-related organised crime”. On 25 June 2015, a new EU Directive on Anti-Money Laundering was adopted, which will help us to follow the money and to crack down on money laundering and terrorist financing. In addition, Europol has established an International Anti-Money Laundering Operational Network (AMON) as a European center of Excellence on all aspects of the criminal investigation of money laundering, thus facilitating information exchange between Money Laundering Investigation Units via existing legal channels.

Russian Federation: The Russian government attached priority to countering the drug threat – a matter of national security and external policy too. In 2010 we adopted an anti-drugs strategy which runs to 2020, providing direction to stem the drug threat. Despite these measures, drugs are continuing to take people’s lives, especially young people. The international community has not been able to stem the flow of drugs from Afghanistan, and we need to work in this direction. In 2015 we adopted a declaration that provides a basis for anti-drugs mechanisms at the cross-border level. We need to continue developing the Paris Pact, which has succeeded in developing effective mechanisms and we intend to continue to improve this. At the same time, we are hoping for a new level of solidarity from countries responding to new threats – including NPS and drug smuggling using the internet. A new edict has been implemented from June this year, with a new Directorate focused on drug trafficking and implementing state policy. We are seeking to reduce duplication and improve effectiveness. This also looks at money laundering, and includes capacity building. With financial support from Japan, we have been carrying out a project to train Afghan police officers. It is clear that combating international organised crime requires international cooperation, taking into account the leading role of UNODC in this area.

UNODC: The issue of capacity strengthening and judicial international cooperation is more important now than ever, due to globalisation and greater reliance on electronic evidence. This facilitates states’ abilities to respond and prosecute. There are formal processes such as extradition and confiscation of proceeds, but many challenges remain. Many countries do not have a centre of expertise on this specialised area of the law; many experience difficulties in understanding the guidelines and procedures. There is often a lack of communication, informal consultations, language barriers, and a lack of information on how to preserve electronic evidence. UNODC is delivering support, training and networking to help in this area – following several mandates from CCPCJ and CND etc. We are developing, disseminating and testing tools in this area. Networks include WACAP (16 countries in West Africa, alongside ECOWAS) and CASC in Central Asia, and these work to enhance communication and cooperation, and also to deliver ‘Train the Trainer’ sessions for officials. The impact includes greater efficiency and case-handling, as reported by in-country focal points. Some cases that had remained dormant or unresolved were able to be resurrected. There are various tools being used – including the MLA Request Writer Tool, and the online directory of competent national authorities.

[NGO Intervention: Pre-recorded promotional video from the Freedom Foundation (House of Refuge) in Nigeria]

Portugal: The move away from a punitive approach directed at drug users facilitated the provision of health services. Scarce and valuable resources were also directed from the prosecution of drug users to cases of drug trafficking and crimes of a more serious nature. Our framework is designed to tackle drugs at the national level and cooperate internationally. Portugal is a party of all relevant conventions and protocols. The UNGASS document emphasises the need for international cooperation, and we are honoured to host the EMCDDA and the Maritime Analysis and Operational Centre – Narcotics (MAOC-N) facilities in our country. Today, we want to focus more in-depth of the work of MAOC-N, co-funded by the EU. The structure includes law enforcement, military and maritime authorities from those countries. The Lisbon Declaration adopted in June recognises the trafficking of drugs as a major threat and we remain committed to these efforts.

United Kingdom: Drug trafficking poses a threat to the safety of all nations. In the UK, 50% of organised crime groups are involved in drug related crime – they evade and defraud the tax, duty, and benefits systems. These groups weaken rule of law and fuel worldwide conflict. The scale of the problem is significant and its wide geographic spread demands a strengthening of law enforcement and criminal justice enforcement. This can be achieved through the establishment of strong governance and by preventing the most vulnerable from being drawn into organised crime. By improving the availability of impact indicators of organised crime we can improve responses to it. Finally – an effective approach to supply and demand reduction including a proportionate criminal justice system and by including alternatives to incarceration.

Afghanistan: The topic of supply reduction was an important part of the UNGASS discussion. It is an area which requires a careful, balanced approach – socioeconomic and regional/international factors which drive drug cultivation must be fully investigated. Both crop eradication and alternative sustainable development for those previously involved in drug cultivation must be used together. The key to success is close monitoring existing trafficking routes as well as identifying new routes and trends. The international community must note the growing links between drugs, money laundering and terrorism. To combat this we must strengthen existing cooperation networks, carry out joint financial investigations and further intelligence sharing. We have improved interagency cooperation at the domestic level and the interagency cooperation between Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan will continue. Improve the availability of statistics of the entire drug business chain from production to trafficking. Further trend analysis examining trafficking in sea routes and precursors movement is also important.

Argentina: (…) We are working towards a single, centralised intelligence system involving security forces in Buenos Aires. Further efforts to improve airport communication to crack down on cocaine trafficking routes aided by a joint programme between the Argentinian Government and UNODC. Argentina has recently joined CrimJust and benefited from its first video conference in September 2016. The partnership with UNODC and its container control programme continues to be a success with further strengthening of international territory measures to prevent drug and precursor trafficking through containers. From July 2016-June 2017 Argentina will co-chair the EU/CELAC discussions and looks forward to further COPOLAD cooperation. Within Latin America, Argentina is conducting crossborder trafficking discussions with Uruguay, paralleling with meetings with Paraguay. Judicial cooperation should promoted in order to strengthen the fight money versus money laundering, both in terms of detection and punishment. A memorandum of understanding exists between FUI Argentina and the equivalent body in the United States to facilitate financial intelligence sharing. In the northern province of Salta, new forensic science labs have been established. These labs, with the latest technology, work to give expert assessment to support law enforcement – avoiding unnecessary waste of time and resource.

China: We agree with the UNGASS measures related to supply reduction and those with respect to law enforcement to counter drug crime and judicial cooperation in the field. It is China’s view that it is of prime importance to strengthen border control to combat cross-border crime. The majority of heroin and methamphetamine sold in China today originates in the Golden Triangle. We have seen an increase in drug trafficking into China, particularly in provinces neighboring the Golden Triangle. Accordingly, we have stepped up drug detection efforts. In 2015, 7.3 tonnes of heroin and 11.2 tonnes methamphetamine were seized, believed to be 83% and 89% of total heroin and methamphetamine in the country respectively. We are very pleased with these successes. In addition, it is important to target illicit crop cultivation and that traditional drugs should be eradicated at the source. In 2015, we detected 6700 illicit plantations, destroyed 289 poppy seed plantations totalling 3.06m plants and 1892 cannabis plantations (48m plants). Law enforcement should be strengthened with respect to organised crime and money laundering. In 2015 we closed 5800 organised crime groups. The National Anti-Drugs Commission has created special taskforce specifically to tackle money laundering and conducts operations along the Mekong with international partners. China is working with Australia, USA, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar & others to detect major international drug crimes. Receive communications from 29 countries requesting judicial cooperation.

UNODC: A focus on money laundering. Small scale drug trade in psychoactive substances conducted largely through Tor & contactless payments in Bitcoin. These payments are almost anonymous and their total capitalisation exceeds $1bn. Consequently they present an excellent opportunity for money laundering. New technology will make this harder still – a new cryptocurrency, “Monero”, is considerably harder to trace than bitcoins. Total capitalisation already exceeds $150m. To counter this we need a strong anti-money laundering system. The emergence of professional money laundering networks poses a significant risk – “trade based money laundering mixers”. Let’s say is there a company that wants to launder money. They contact the professional laundering network and money gets sent to one of many input points. The money is then split into small parts and sent to other accounts and mixed with other legitimate and illegimate funds – “the mixer”. It is easy to see how money comes enters the network but almost impossible to see how the money moves around inside. Untraceable by brute force approach. When combined with large import/export companies – very dangerous. Such professional money laundering networks are real and are operating now. A recent investigation revealed $22bn laundered by a single mixer organisation. Not only is this a risk to the countries where the money originates but also pose threats to the countries that host them. Money stolen from banks in electronic heists are funneled into the same system. We see a dramatic increase sophistication in criminalisation. The UNODC have developed a training course on Bitcoin which has been piloted in Austria and Hungary. It’s possible to trace dirty money in Bitcoin – IP address can be traced and a physical address obtained. It’s very hard but it is possible. The UNODC have organised a special meeting of practioners here in Vienna in Dec 2016. New knowledge, new technology will be used to counter huge networks. Cannot be investigated by single countries – it requires several jurisdictions and a lifting of bank secrecy. Requires cooperation between several countries, several FIUs and the creation of further law enforcement networks. UNODC has experience in these matters and will support investigations.

NGO Swedish Narcotics Officers Association: We are an association of 2100 members – composed of police and law enforcement officers, customs officers, and national lab scientists. We act as consultants for Swedish govt., informing and educating over 5000 students, civilians and law enforcement officers. Law enforcement protects public safety, reduce drug availability and discourage drug use. Furthermore it bridges the gap to the health sectors and therefore acts as an engine for recovery for addicts. These projects work together and show quick visible change in the face of increasing supply and demand for drugs. This is the best approach worldwide. We are surprised and disappointed that politicians do not see this. The Swedish Narcotics Officers Association will aid the supply reduction call in the UNGASS outcome document. Trafficking of drugs is the most important catalyst in crime. Criminal organisations earn too much money on the back of human suffering. We encourage asset recovery to cripple organised crime organisations. In our opinion, seized assets should go to civil society organisations for prevention not to Government. The success of legalised cannabis in the USA is based on false reports and on money making. It is possible to see tragic consequences of this experiment – Mexican cartels are earning more money as a result of legalizing cannabis and cannabis-involved traffic deaths have risen 48% in Colorado. 9 out of 10 people oppose illegal drugs and our common goal should be a society without illegal drugs through prevention and prosecution. Full statement available here.

France: It is France’s view to adopt a balanced policy twinned with international cooperation to combat the drug trade. Drugs undermine society and public health. The threat caused by transnational drug trafficking needs international and national responses. Within the EU framework, France has always looked to increase cooperation: supported EUROPOL + EUROJUST. Support regional & national programmes and through Paris Pact in 2003. EU-developed programme investigating heroin routes in West Africa strongly supported by France. France works with Mexico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Cuba, hand in hand with French territories through the Appui à la Lutte contre le Crime Organisé dans la Région Caraïbe (ALCORCA). Only a few days ago, a French navy frigate intercepted a boat holding 55kgs cocaine. This would not be possible without close cooperation between France and Caribbean countries. ALCORCA provides civil society initiatives to aid victims of drug trafficking – especially women and young people. It is France’s view that without a truly global and balanced approach trafficking will never be truly tackled.

United States: Drug related crime impacts on local safety. It is vital to distinguish between substance users and traffickers. Domestically – the US works to bring together tiers of law enforcement from state to federal level such as The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area programme (HIDTA). Throughout the globe, US helps law enforcement partners to combat organised crime organisations, to seize their assets and limit their ability to influence local governments. The United States works with Central and South American Governments to implement a place based strategy: to reduce violence particularly in at-risk communities – identified by intelligent data collection. Model police precincts in El Salvador prevent crime through intelligence gathering & community involvement. The Merida Initiative in Mexico disrupts organised crime and creates a new border structure. In the Caribbean our efforts reduce trafficking, increase public safety and promote social justice. In Afghanistan, we support counter narcotics and supply reduction from interdiction to alternative development and eradication. These efforts have been successful with multi-tonne seizures and high value trafficker arrests. Furthermore we supports the UNODC container programme targeting drug and precursors trafficking. Fully to tackle money laundering cooperation between countries is important. We pursue legal cases through to conviction and confiscation of the proceeds of crime. We support the Global Programme against Money Laundering (GPML) particularly in Southern Africa and Horn of Africa. Supports GPML HQ staff with mentors in Kenya and SA.

Netherlands: The Netherlands agrees with Slovakia’s statement. It is the Dutch policy to adopt a balanced approach: health and judicial angles are equally important. The Netherlands adopted a “100% check” policy on high risk routes into Schiphol airport which used to be highly used by traffickers. All passengers on routes of interest were interviewed. These interviews, in combination with the latest technology and sniffer dogs, and restricted access to and constant surveillance of high risk planes has seen a dramatic drop in traffickers. In addition to monitoring air traffic, in collaboration with Spain, Ireland, Portugal France and the UK, high risk vessels from Carribbean and Atlantic are monitored. Target vessels can be boarded by relevant navies and coastguards. With respect to domestic hemp cultivation: plantations are destroyed but also assets confiscated. When there exist luxury goods (cars, jewelry, houses) which cannot be explained they are confiscated, even before formal prosecution. An integral approach (i.e. a fiscal approach in combination with criminal justice) must be adopted should efforts be successful.

Turkey: Like others here, Turkey believes in a balanced approach – prevent both illegal cultivation and organised crime. Due to Turkey’s geographical location, sitting between two continents, we are a hot spot for transit and trafficking. We have increased our efforts to tighten border control, to prevent free movement of drugs and traffickers. The terrorist organisation PKK is involved in trafficking drugs, the proceeds of which are directed into terror against innocent civilians. The terrorist organisation also cultivates drugs. In June 2016, total seizures from the PKK totaled 17414kg of cannabis (67.9m plants) with an estimated market value of €1.3bn. In 2016, 14805 controlled delivery operations yielded 3.2 tonnes heroin, 25 tonnes cannabis and 1.4m ecstasy tablets. Capacity building is key to progress – training operations of law enforcement agencies in bi and multilateral cooperation.

Mexico: There exist three main priorities for Mexico in terms of supply reduction; 1) strength in a common front versus organised crime organisations and money laundering organisations; 2) manage the social damage incurred by drugs and drug trafficking including sustainable alternative development and providing for those effected by violence. 3) Drug proportionate sentencing and avoiding incarceration (hand in hand with supply reduction) to rebuild the social fabric. Mexico notes the importance of having forensic evidence on routes and to assay the scope (both regionally + globally) to allow guidance for decisions. Mexico also stresses importance of illicit crop monitoring systems – SecDef, Navy, Prosecutors General office. Appeal to all states to cooperate with UNODC for exchange of information & good practice. Collection of data is important to come to the appropriate diagnosis to stand up to organised criminal organisations.

Japan: Japan has focused on synthetic drugs – NPS, ALS especially methamphetamine. Over 2000 NPS have been brought under regulation. However, it is vital to enhance international cooperation to address the problem – indeed it is the common and shared responsibility of the international community. Japan supports counter narcotics in Afghanistan and the Golden Triangle, Central Asia and Africa. Drug programme in Afghanistan aims to address supply reduction. Support has been provided in capacity building assistance, to strengthen criminal justice systems in the face of corruption, money laundering and terrorism. Important to address link between transnational organised crime and terrorism. To this end Japan provided $5m to UNODC. 2012 project with UNODC and Russia: Afghan police provided with anti narcotics training in Russia. Substantial outcomes – 6 sessions completed with 100 officers have been trained. The project will now expand in scope to 5 central Asian countries. Regional efforts to curb supply and demand have been bolstered including high level agreements between Japan and Central Asian countries to combat the emerging threat of NPS. Japan hosted a regional seminar in Kazakhstan on this topic. Within Sub-Saharan Africa, border control is crucial: in 2016 Japan has doubled its efforts with UNODC. Japan is strongly concerned about the nexus forming between organised crime and terrorism. This year, for the first time, it provided funds to the UNODC for the prevention of terrorism and extremism.

UNODC: Outlining the CrimJust project – programme vs cocaine routes. 1) Funded by the EU and partnered with Interpol. 2) International cocaine trafficking has 2 main regions – Latin America/Caribbean and West Africa. 3) Seizures estimated at 43-68% of total production. Follow-up from these seizures in terms of criminal justice is currently insufficient. Three aims: Capacity building – support institutional creation at the law enforcement level; Fostering international cooperation to accompany technical assistance; Increase international accountability. Empower anti-corruption measures. Project structure: 1) Law enforcement –  support international cooperation (lead by Interpol); 2) UNODC – capitalize on judicial side, prosecutors. Aim to make the transition from law enforcement to prosecutors smoother and more efficient; 3) Anti corruption. Transparency in international law. Incorporation of civil society; 4) Synergy with other projects – EU, bilateral programmes – ongoing. The project has effected a huge disruption of cocaine shipments. But need effort in the followup,  the seizures are not enough. Asset seizure and criminal justice efforts must be increased.

Mexican Commission for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights – (Webcast audio issues) Full statement available here.

Panama: Panama is a meeting point – planes, ships from and to everywhere. Its geographic position is well suited to traffickers and money launderers. There is a great effort to combat this and associated corruption networks. Greater regional & global efforts required to counter this. At a national level: The FIU has been revitalized with suspect activity monitored; Supervisory bodies for illicit activities and specialized prosecutors offices for money laundering have been founded; New legal instruments to investigate funds financing terrorism and money laundering created alongside 4 new laws. Significant improvement in road and sea control. Involvement in costal communities with vigilant fisherman. Panama participates in intelligence exchange with local partners alongside partnership in the UNODC container control programme. Panama is also part of the CrimJust programme – serving to strengthen institutions along the major cocaine trafficking routes. Inter-agency cooperation, both in terms of security and customs, is in action between Costa Rica and Panama.

Venezuela: Supply reduction and combating money laundering are fundamental pillars of the work and considerable effort and expenditure have been utilised. It is essential to know both the routes and social causes of these crimes and Venezuela has continually stressed this to the international community. Prevention of free movement of chemical precursors particularly important. A network of primary and secondary radar has been deployed to oversee national space to prevent air trafficking. Action also taken to improve trafficking by land and crop cultivation. With respect to money laundering – Venezuela has adopted recommendations from the Caribbean taskforce.

Iran: Tehran would like 1 of these meetings/year. Supply reduction – some people here have talked about grams and kg – we just talk about tonnes! In the first 6 months in 2016 alone, 324 tonnes drugs seized: 10 tonnes of heroin, 5 tonnes morphine, 23 tonnes opium, 7 tonnes hash, arrested 127,000+ people on drug offences and destroyed 99 kitchen labs. Reduction in amphetamine-type but increase in opiates seizures. Tehran proposes to be a host to UNODC money laundering conference for Balkan routes which need more attention. Money promised for the UNODC programme has not yet been paid and countries to do more for these initiatives – especially providing for Afghanistan.

Philippines: Key issues: supply reduction, demand reduction, civil awareness and alternative development. Drug of choice in the Philippines is methamphetamine which arrives by seaport, airports, postal service or the seemingly endless coastline. Emphasis for strict border control. Airport interdiction operations aim to address smuggling by air. In 2014, Philippines hosted the ASEAN interdiction force meeting. There is a need to stay 1 step ahead of traffickers and do so by regular operations and intelligence sharing. In 2015, 25,000 anti-drug operations were carried out, yielding $100m+ seizures and contributing to key precursor control. Increased cooperation needed due to increased technological capacity and increased mobility of drug traffickers. Progress can be made by learning from other member states and their supply reduction programmes, sharing intelligence and accepting joint responsibility.

Thailand: Thailand recognizes that a balanced approach between supply & demand reduction is required. Thailand cooperates with China, Laos and Myanmar as part of the safe Mekong initiative which has been widely successful. UNODC provided capacity training for law enforcement in precursor control and International Import Export System which was both very useful and appreciated.

Nigeria: Supply reduction presents a great challenge to Nigeria. Emerging trends: in 2015-2016 some 800 tonnes of cannabis was seized, representing 80% of total drug seizures. Improved collaboration with local communities in areas affected by crop destruction. Methamphetamine and ephedrine precursor trafficking is an increasing problem. Major destinations for outbound trafficking from Nigeria are Asia and other African countries. More cooperation with these countries is required to combat this. In March – May 2016, 4 illicit meth labs identified, bringing the total number to 11. The money laundering act  has been reformed and now complies with international standards. Custom officials have been equipped with up-to-date and brought under centralized control. There exists an strengthening link between organised crime and terror which is of concern.

El Salvador: (…) Implementation Support Section Chief discussing container control: 1)Covers sea, land and air trafficking; 2) 750m containers moved every year. As it is impossible to check every container, risk indicators have been devised such that only high risk containers are checked. The programme is active in 32 countries with 20+ being set up/in the pipeline; 3) Although the programme was conceived to tackle illicit trade it also facilities legal trade of “normal” goods; 4) The programme is looking to expand control to airports. 43% of cargo (by value) is being shipped by air. The air container programme is currently active in 6 countries.

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