(a) Demand reduction and related measures;
Aldo Lale-Demoz, UNODC: Let me testify to members states the achievements that are available to us. Let me show how I have made notable achievements. The rationale for including health care and treatments are provable. We must move away from compulsory treatment systems. All of this information is available to member states. We just released the (find document name) in boardroom A. There are 12.2 million people PWIDs living, with around 7% living with HIV. Current coverage is too low to protect woman and children. We barely managed a 15% reduction in the number of people living with HIV, which is highly problematic. Achieving this goal requires several efforts across the sustainable development goals. It is hoped that this outcome document will achieve better outcomes and responses for drug users.
Angela Me, UNODC: (Slideshow Presentation) Prevalence of drugs has been stable, but use of drugs has gone up. In Asia the situation is emerging more rapidly. Highest percentage is in Eastern Europe and North America. Issue of access to services for woman. The prevalence of HIV is higher for woman than men. The highest prevalence is in USA and America. More harmful cannabis is now in the market. Huge increase in the use of amphetamine, particularly methamphetamine, in Asia. NPS an increasing threat.
Gilberto Gerra, UNODC: Drug Demand Reduction and Health. Response to our survey is less than half of member states. We do not have the data. Research is only related to countries that respond. Europe responding well. In other regions, the providing of data is declining. One quarter or one third are using the methodology for prevention. Often, when there is no source of data, there is also no program in place. Life skills education is a specific methodology. Many countries not using it, and don’t seem to know about it. Most countries are implementing prevention programs without doing evaluations of impacts on the population. Less than one quarter or one quarter are using social rehabilitation or aftercare. Coverage asks if the country is really offering facilities all around the country. Coverage in prison settings is even worse than OST outside. You lose some access to healthcare in prison, which is against the right to health. Coverage related to HIV intervention. One quarter of services are available. No improvement in availability and coverage of treatment services. Drug use disorders are not recognized as a normal disease and are discriminated against. Big gap between what we know in science and what happens in practice. High purity heroin is leading to a lot of overdoses in USA. Easy solution is to distribute naloxone to everyone. Most urgent tool that should be put in place. Unprepared system to respond to NPS. Most laboratory toxicological analysis, even in developing countries, not available to check NPS in people arriving to emergency units. Burden of disease. If we invest resources in preventing, treating, and protecting the health of people with drug dependence, we will reduce the burden on society. New settings, such as refugee camps, have increased vulnerability for substance use disorder. This generation must be protected. Link between drugs and terrorism. Drugs used by terrorists. Resolution from last year’s CND inspired member states to have a continuous dialogue with the scientific community. We know that genetic and environmental factors can contribute to a person’s unique susceptibility to using drugs initially and becoming addicted. Not all individuals are reacting to drugs in the same way. Gene environment interplay between cannabis and psychosis. We cannot ask if cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, etc. are dangerous. We have to ask, dangerous for whom? One out of six have access to treatment and care at the global level. Women are stigmatized and have even lower access. Should be no compulsory treatment, and no conviction or punishment. Adopt the eyes of the poor, developing countries, and marginalized people. Stop defining the use of drugs as recreational. That is only the view of the rich and privileged. Those who are trapped in poverty cannot call their drug use recreational.
(b) Supply reduction and related measures;
(c) Countering money-laundering and promoting judicial cooperation to enhance international cooperation.
UNODC: The number of member states reporting a balanced and integrated approach to reduce supply and demand continues to grow. Attempts to combat corruption are being mainstreamed. Measures introduced are straightforward and effective. Member states are taking precursor control seriously. Production of ATS is especially being targeted. Cooperation is an important part of the response. Large amounts of heroin and cocaine have been seized. To counter transnational organised crime, it is necessary to deprive criminal groups of their profits. The international community has therefore developed robust counter-money laundering standards. Judicial cooperation is an essential component of an effective judicial system. Member states may wish to coordinate more to ensure supply reduction is achieved.
UNODC: Member states such as Nigeria and Guatemala, among others, have committed to make AD policies part of their national strategies. We must work hand in hand with farmer communities. AD must have a people-based approach. AD must be mainstreamed. The private sector must provide a market for the sale of products produced from AD programmes. AD is not broad in its coverage. A sustained reduction in illicit drug crops is not possible without more coverage. The geographical scale and scope of AD is what needs to be questioned – not the concept itself. As the World Drug Report 2015 highlighted, not enough money is dedicated to AD programmes. Illicit crop cultivation estimates should not be the only measure of AD success – human development indicators should also be considered. UNODC will provide technical assistance to help design AD strategies. We commit to work with all member states on this important issue.
EU: Turkey, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia, Albania, Norway, Ukraine, Moldova, and Andorra all align themselves with this statement.
World drug problem continues to pose a threat to security and health. Note the dangerous trend of poly-drug use (sometimes mixing licit with illicit substances), and the high incidence of blood-borne viruses among injecting drug users. Effective demand reduction policies needs to incorporate social reintegration, treatment, prevention and other established approaches. Need also to provide education and programmes that promote healthy lifestyles. Risk and harm reduction is applied by all EU member states. Risk and harm reduction interventions have helped stem the number of infectious diseases. NPS, prescription drugs, need to boost evidence and research, for sharing experience and evidence, need for active involvement of civil society in formulation of drug policy at all levels. We are committed to improve accessibility and availability of drug demand reduction measures. We will implement best practice approaches and intend to invest in measures that substantially reduce drug deaths and blood-borne viruses.
Sudan: No country alone can fight drugs. International cooperation is needed to achieve a drug-free world. We have strived to cooperate with international institutions to track smuggling operations and financial flows that may be linked to the illicit drug trade. We are fighting ATS. We have an anti-money laundering law, and an anti-terrorism unit. Arrests have increased in our country. There are greater linkages between illicit drug crop farmers and smuggling. We are a key transit hub. We have seized a range of substances and precursor chemicals. We have done much to fight the production of captagon. We have seized 11 kilograms of heroin. It is necessary to be harsher in all types of punishment against traffickers and producers. There is misuse and abuse of NPS, therefore, we have established a guide on how to detect these substances and their precursors. The agencies in my country continue to organise a scientific forum on drugs. My country tries hard to eliminate drug crops. Sustainable development is one of the tools for eliminating drugs. We need to re-channel the efforts of our farmers into other activities. We urge UNODC to continue its support of AD programmes. The drug problem is one of the most complex issues facing the world. The most affected are youth and young generations. We are hopefully that this sect of society can recover. One of the main pillars in our response to the WDP is demand reduction. We provide care and treatment through mental hospitals, as well as social reintegration. Because we don’t not have specialized institutions, our patients are often treated in mental health institutions. We have recently strengthened are relations with civil society organizations. Regarding better institution coordination, we have organized several workshops to bring together various organizations. 134 workers were trained. We should expand our discussion. As a member of the league of Arab states, we have seen the value of cooperation between countries. Treating the use of drugs is important. We look for close cooperation with the UNODC and other UN organizations. The challenge is big and we need to double efforts. Old African proverb: You can go far, far further if you walk with others.
China: Target the population as well. Reach the population in vulnerable settings, such as families, workplaces, etc. Given young age of drug users, emphasis on adolescent and education in schools. National plan on prevention produced documentaries and materials on this topic. In terms of focus on women, effective measures to ensure women benefit from programs without discrimination. Drug control website in China has a daily average of 3 million visitors. High number of subscribers. To meet the challenge of synthetic drugs, established a committee of experts to conduct basic research on drug abuse and techniques. In 2015, formulated community based treatment work plan with clearly defined measures of community based treatment. Also called on local communities to increase treatment and prevention, improve employability of people who use drugs, and facilitate multiple channels of international exchange of information. Total of over 700 methadone clinics. 79.6% treatment rate. In reducing supply, China carried out extensive cooperation for drug control and coordination with relevant plan of action. Conducted serious operations against drug trafficking and smuggling in border areas. Adopted a three year plan of action. In response to drugs coming from Afghanistan through Middle Asia, China actively participated in activation channel and jointly planned and developed operations to seize precursor chemicals at borders. China actively combats trafficking on the internet. Produced good social and legal effects. Investigated cases of online drug trafficking. Applied criminal penalties. In promoting alternative development, this is the first year for the implementation of the SDGs. China will continue to commit to reducing the illicit cultivation of crops. Provide reliable and safe markets for alternative development. Involved in poppy cultivation monitoring in Myanmar and Laos.
Brazil: we support the promotion of harm reduction policies, access to controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes. Brazil remains committed to the three conventions. They are the appropriate legal framework for the international drug control system and offer enough flexibility. We welcome and support statements made by INCB and UNODC on the abolition of the death penalty. We are moving towards more progressive and balanced approaches. We put emphasis on health and human rights, social integration and the aversion of marginalization and stigmatization of drug users. We highlight in particular the adoption of a 2011 plan to address methamphetamine and crack consumption, equivalent to around 2 billion. We remain committed to fighting stimulants with an evidence-based approach. We continue to emphasize money laundering and drug trafficking as a key problem, and the importance of coordination between our national institutions. With reference to special efforts to combat drug trafficking – recently created special investigation units have been involved in the recovery of assets from illicit operations. We have managed to impact the supply of drugs in Brazil and other countries. Let me emphasize that Brazil will continue to partner with the relevant organizations in order to tackle the World drug problem.
USA: At the local level, important that law enforcement officers understand drug dependence as a health disorder. Should have access to naloxone and trained to respond if needed to drug overdose calls. Drug courts are a collaboration between justice and health. Offer appropriately screened offenders a chance to enroll in treatment programs and to be diverted from prisons. Collaboration between the justice and health sectors also important at the international level. Important that UNODC work closely with WHO on public health aspects of drug policy. A good example of creative collaboration is the development of the international standards of treatment. Once finalized, encourage member states to adopt these guidelines. Important not to lose sight of combating transnational organized crime and involvement in drug trafficking. Maintaining effective points of contact. To take the profit out of crime, states should establish effective anti money laundering regimes, improved legislation, and domestic enforcement capacity. Demand reduction, supply reduction, and judicial cooperation are all important. Increased collaboration between health and justice sectors are key to effective implementation of balanced and comprehensive drug policy.
Mexico: The purpose of the conventions is not to just control but also to enable access to drugs, particularly essential medicines. 15th June 2015: Electronic logbook to avoid diversion. We developed general rules to govern this system, which is based on bar codes. We have bought together all stakeholders involved in the provision of palliative care to coordinate their actions and have had success.
Nigeria: Demand reduction is a pivotal thematic pillar. Nigeria has diversified prevention programs. With support of international collaborators, school based prevention program going on across the country. National drug law enforcement agency using Twitter and Instagram. HIV transmission is gradually declining among general population, but concerned about transmission among people who use drugs. Committed to provide comprehensive treatment. Nigeria concerned with the trend of substance abuse, including substances not under international control. Abundant availability of cannabis in the country is concerning. Call for technical support from international communities on research for substitution therapy for cannabis users in treatment. Emerging trends in warehousing of cannabis in rural communities pose a challenge. Cannabis accounts for 80% of all the drugs seized in 2015 in our country. Strategies to align nation with best practices in alternative development programs. Concerned about production and trafficking of methamphetamines. Call for more collaborative efforts in our region. Eleven clandestine laboratories identified. Member states need to be cognizant of new trends in precursors. Trafficking in cocaine and heroin is worrisome. Believe in the principles of common and shared responsibility, information sharing, and cooperation.
Kenya: Our strategy and principles were highlighted yesterday, so will just cover demand reduction now. We have gone from working with just 25 hospitals to 40 hospitals with opiate available to those who need them, so there is improvement. Cancer is now the number three killer of Kenyans. The government has undertaken improvement to the services and facilities available, including minimum level of education to work in the sector. The government has looked at issue of human resources over past months, this is not unique to Kenya, looking at Africa in general, there is a big shortage of health professionals that are trained to work in the field of addiction. As a result we have begun to work with educational institutions, to train health professionals to begin to work in addiction treatment. We face many challenges in the supply reduction area. We have recently undergone a review and enhanced our work on border control. We have undergone surveillance developments, increased border control and security, and we have developed an agency targeted specifically at dismantling economic means of drug traffickers.
EU: Effectively combating money laundering and illicit financial flows reduces the ability of organized crime groups to maintain their activities. Always looking for better analysis to do this more effectively. Prevent diversion from the legal to illegal market. Endorse alternative development and welcome the growing number of countries engaged in this area. Most effective response to the global drug challenge is to work together and address the threats posed by organized crime. Our actions in priority third countries and regions target every element of the issues in a comprehensive way, including the root causes of crime and trafficking. Enhanced partnerships with development agencies and industry to tackle illicit drug production and precursors. Together the EU and member states are UNODC’s largest donors. We presently finance 170 million worth of ongoing projects. Total accumulated contribution is 1.1 billion since 1987. Regarding supply reduction, support programs in law enforcement capacity building, anti-corruption, maritime security, and alternative development. Commitment to ensuring the protection of human rights is fully integrated in the dialogue of our partners. Not only is the death penalty a gross violation of the right to life, there is also clear evidence that it neither deters or reduces drug-related crime, hence our call for states that still use the death penalty for drug-related crimes to impose a moratorium as a step towards abolition.
As it is the first time for the delegation to take the floor, we would like to congratulate you on your election as chair of the 59th CND Meeting
We would like also to congratulate all those that have been elected to constitute the secretariat of the 59th session. We look forward to a valuable and productive meeting.
Chair, Tanzania continues to look at the UNODC to play a critical and pivotal role in leveraging international support for counter Narcotics issues and We align ourselves with the AU Common Position on the drug problem.
Chair, Tanzania continues to look at the five (5) International Conventions as the corner stones of our fight against the drug problem
Namely, The 1961 Convention, 1971 Convention, 1988 Convention, TOC and the UNCLOS.
Chair, The Drug misuse is a problem for individuals and communities threatening the political, economic and social security of our countries.
To this effect Chair, Our country is battling with the problem of drug abuse in three pillars:
Tanzania has formed the National Task Force, comprising of different Law Enforcement Agencies- Namely The Police, Customs, Immigration, Anti-corruption, Intelligence, Military, Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority , Government Chemist and the Office of Directory of Public Prosecution.
To this effect, Tanzania disbanded the Drug Control Commission which was the coordinating Agency and formed the Drug Control and Enforcement Authority. This Agency will have the powers to Investigate, Arrest and Prosecute those involved in the drug trade.
We are also forming the Transnational Organised Crime Unit to deal with all serious crimes including Human Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Ivory Smuggling, Money Laundering, Extortion, Charcoal Smuggling etc
Chair, we are proud to report to you that we have made Tanzania a hostile country for drug traffickers and Big Barons/Drug Kingpins are incarcerated.
Chair, in Tanzania with substantial epidemic among people who inject drugs, analysis has consistently shown that, investment in harm reduction is critical to minimizing new HIV infections and deaths.
Following this reality, Tanzania now provides Needles and Syringes, Opiate Substitution Therapy and Anti-Retroviral Therapy for people who use drugs. In fact we are providing a comprehensive health package to the people who use drugs
Chair, Tanzania’s Harm Reduction Strategy aims in reducing social and health risks associated with drug use through a set of interventions such as Needle and Syringe exchange, HIV Counseling and Testing, Anti-Retroviral Therapy, Opioid Substitution Therapy, Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Condom Programmes, Vaccination against Viral Hepatitis and Treatment of Tuberculosis.
Chair, There is now abundant evidence that harm reduction is the key principle of sound drug policy and it is proven that this package reduces HIV transmission among the people who inject or use drugs.
Chair, Law enforcement Agencies alone cannot fight this scourge. We have seen the pivotal role being played by the Non-Governmental organizations and Community -Based Organizations in their effort to supplement the efforts of the Government.
We have seen that Community based outreach programmes and peer education as modalities for delivering specific services to key populations. In existing programmes, outreach workers and peer educators facilitate linkages of key populations to drop-in centres, health facilities and other services that have been designed to respond to their needs.
Chair, allow me to mention a few NGOS, IDPC, De Justicia of Colombia and OSIEA that have contributed to our understanding of the drug problem through their sensitization and Literature Support, which helped us to change our perception of the Drug problem from a Law Enforcement Perspective to Harm Reduction perspective,
Chair. It suffices here to say the following:-
- Tanzania is committed to see to it that all people who use drugs be it by injecting or in any other means , those in prisons and other closed settings have access to harm reduction services,
- Tanzania is committed to ensuring adequate availability and access to opioids for medical use towards reducing pain and suffering,
- In considering taking measures against their incarceration,
- In reducing stigmatization in the general population and also in the health sectors,
- Availability and access to Naloxone among health workers , Prison Staff, First respondents
- To continue to empower civil societies/Non-Governmental Organizations in the fight against the drug problem,
- Ensuring adequate investment in harm reduction programmes.
To conclude, UNGASS 2016 would provide us with the opportunity to look back, take stock of what we have done, how we have fared all these years in this war.
UNGASS will provide us with the opportunity to correct our ministries
Chair, we do not want to travel short distance alone. We want to go long distances with Partners both UNODC, WHO, INCB, CND, Governmental and Non-Governmental, This is why we traveled all this long to join partners in this fight.
Korea: More and more drug trafficking attempts have been intercepted in Korea. We therefore make supply reduction our top priority. We have used every available resource – sniffer dogs, detection units, drug analysis facilities, and more. We have been working to stem the flow of NPS. We have been a part of an NPS information-sharing service that has been highly effective.
Indonesia: Drug policies should use an integrated and balanced approach. We are looking to create a society free from drugs. We have developed some education programs and rehabilitation centers. It is expected that in 2019 our national program will be adopted and implemented. These are set-up, not just to cure addiction but also to reintegrate users into society. We have succeeded in reducing users by 4.2 million to 4 million; drug deaths are down 40 – 33 people per year. Drugs have had a devastating impact on society. Traffickers have targeted Indonesia, its children, and its families. It is beyond dispute that narcotic drugs are highly damaging to the socio-political position of people in society. A zero tolerance approach is needed to fight the drug threat. Up to now, 8 memorandums have been signed. We have increased the number of predicate offenses as apart of this crackdown. Taking into consideration the transnational nature of the crime, we have taken several measures to confront this.
Venezuela: We affirm the principle of common and shared responsibility in tackling the drug problem, while also acknowledging the problem is different in different countries. We commit to the goals of the 2009 Political Declaration, in line with the three UN drug conventions. We have a central coordinating body for drugs and a national strategy – and this includes elements of demand reduction. We agree with comments about the inefficient overage of programmes, and we therefore commit to improve our strategies. Here are some of the recent achievements of Venezuela. We have a national prevention programme. We approved a new anti-drug plan which will be in force from 2016-2019. It is comprehensive and multidisciplinary. We are targeting children, teenager, all levels of education. We have made significant progress, and together with additional protection, this is addressing the problem. We have updated our guidebook on drug prevention in prisons, so we can teach people to have a healthier lifestyle. With regard to treatment, we have a model that employs residential care, day care, and we work with private organisations that work with addicts all over the country.
Norway: Aligns with the EU statement. The ultimate goal of the drug conventions is to put humans and health at the heart of drug polices. By promoting health, we do not think demand reduction is the only approach, neither is supply reduction. There must be a balance. Contribution from all relevant organizations. The world drug problem, needs to be encompassed by a comprehensive approach including gender perspectives and special groups. We can not tolerate the crisis of untreated pain.
Algeria: The drug use and trafficking situation in Algeria is quite worrying. Our country’s geographical location, is as a crossroads between Europe, the middle east and the Sahara. Traffickers see Algeria as the fastest and easiest route to use. We are seeing worrying trends in terms of cannabis seizures in our country. The large quantities of cannabis are seized in our country. We are seeing an increase in methamphetamine. The low costs of illicit substances and theft from pharmacies following diversion are the main factors behind this trafficking. We are doing our best to raise awareness of the dangers, and provide treatment for users. We are setting up specialized services to counter drugs. This operational effort is supported by technical and scientific bodies. We are increasing intelligence, economic measures against traffickers, it is clear that our technologies are not enough to match the increasingly sophisticated criminal networks. It is necessary for us to have international assistance. The three conventions provide the basis for the drug control regime. There is a strong link between terrorism and trafficking, which must be considered.
France: We are delighted to take the floor to discuss demand reduction. We are glad that public health and medical care has taken centre stage in this debate. We are committed to harm reduction programmes, and are delighted to see new countries joining this approach. We should not just sweep away the health risks of drugs; we read the recent WHO report on cannabis use, and we should take into account the drugs effects on the health of young people in particular. So we need to be aware of these aspects when considering demand reduction.
Venezuela: We are committed to reducing drug demand, in line with the three drug conventions and 1998 Political Declaration. Although we have a central coordinating body to reduce drug supply, our other activities are carried out by other bodies. Since 2012 we’ve been implementing a policy called the Great Mission. It combats the illicit trafficking and abuse of drugs, as well as the prevention of money laundering and terrorism. In 2015, we updated our technology to keep our airspace safe and also monitor our maritime areas. We have planned and implemented 27 special anti-drug policies with our national armed forces, destroyed 12 unauthorised runways and 7 secret cocaine labs, and we seized 13 planes that were directly linked to drug crimes. We caught 6 people on drug charges, at the request of international partners – this demonstrates our willingness to coordinate. We have scheduled substances not in the 1961 and 1998 drug conventions.
Kevin Sabet, SAM: We speak from lots of members around the world, standing against legalization of drugs. There is conclusive evidence that cannabis creates several mental health problems. Lets make no mistake about it. The legalization of cannabis is about making particular companies very rich, making products that target the poor and disenfranchised. In Colorado, the impacts have been felt. People driving under the influence, school dropouts. We must avoid the mass industrialization of the industry, a model like ‘big tobacco’, which encourages and perpetuates use of a drug that is increasingly more potent. This perspective must be bought to the UNGASS.
Thailand: The world drug problem is severe. We believe the problem should be addressed with a balanced, integrated approach. On demand reduction, we believe prevention efforts should start at an early age. Alternative development addresses the root causes of the illicit cultivation of drug crops, helping to promote sustainability and prosperity. As we approach UNGASS 2016, we reaffirm our commitment to international cooperation. We would like to express our appreciation to the UNODC once again, which provides member states with a forum to prepare for the UNGASS.
Morocco: we have endeavored to optimize our efforts to prevent emerging dangers, given our geographical specificity that makes us a key trafficking crossroads. We mobilize a lot of human and material resources, which has led to a reduction in the ground surface used for cannabis cultivation. The efforts deployed by Morocco will only work if we act on demand. Some countries have started to depenalize and legalize drug use, which only serves to exacerbate the problem. We have invested years in trying to seal land and seal border using technology and human resources, this policy is an important way to neutralize this country against drug trafficking. We have seized large quantities of drugs. We are concerned by psychotropic substances. Tackling drug demand is a significant pillar in our anti drug policy. We also focus on drug treatment services for young people. We have been fully cooperating with all stakeholders through an exchange of information on international operations.
India: We recognise drug abuse as a psychosocial problem. Our approach employs education, treatment, rehabilitation, and peer programmes. Treatment services must strive to make people drug-free, so that they can live healthy lives. A manual of minimum standards has been developed to ensure quality in treatment and care. The UNODC Annual World Drug Report 2015 states that illicit opium poppy cultivation has increased. This surge must be addressed by all possible means. India has been involved in combatting this for a long time. We are concerned by the rise in NPS and are working to stem it. 10 substances have been recommended for scheduling by the WHO. We are working to control precursors. The new controls we have put in place are restricting the supply of ephedrine, which is used for illicit purposes. As far as money laundering is concerned, we are setting up a regional coordination centre for South Asia to help the region. To counter illicit financial flows and crime, we have amended our laws relating to money laundering and foreign exchanges.
Japan: We support treatment services for drug abusers. However, we are strongly against the uniform approach of harm reduction, including decriminalization and needle exchange services. It is not appropriate to impose this law on countries that do not plan. Japanese society has continued to struggle with synthetic drugs being smuggled through the country. It is vital to enhance international cooperation to tackle global trafficking. I would like to reiterate that Japan will continue to enhance efforts to fight the drug problem.
Iraq: We recognise the importance of the UNGASS process, and we look forward to discussing the drugs issue in this forum. Iraq is a transit country, rather than a producer or consumer country. However, the health ministry and ministry of the interior has formed a commission to address this issue. We have established a number of centres to provide health and social services for drug abusers. We have centres that treat the victims of drug trafficking too. We hope to emerge from this session with constructive recommendations. We stress the need for balanced solutions. We wish to reaffirm the need to not neglect criminal justice in addressing this threat. We lend our support to all international efforts in facing up to this phenomenon.