The UNODC World Drug Report 2016 is available here.
Welcoming remarks by H.E. Mr. Vladimir Gal (Chair): Good afternoon. It is an honour and pleasure to welcome you to this event in commemoration of the Global Day. World Drug Report was launched in Vienna by the CND. I am pleased to see participation of government, civil society, and warm welcome of Yury Fedotov, Khaled Shamaa, (…) Today is not a regular session, its is a special session and special event since it is the first time since the commission meets since UNGASS. The UNODC world drug report provides annual report of overview of drug market, production, trafficking, modalities and consumption. Chapter 1: presents comprehensive overview of drug markets and impact of drug on health and reviews scientific evidence. Chapter 2: focuses on the mechanisms of interaction between WDP and sustainable development goals. Today’s event provides participants to be informed on key information, and provide findings of the report. Additional Chapter focuses on 2030 Agenda, also in addressing WDP. Implementation of recommendation in UNGASS outcome document, is also linked with implementation of Agenda 2030. UNGASS outcome doc that to achieve these goals and to address WDP, mutually reinforcing. Floor to Ambassador Shamaa
Remarks by H.E. Mr… Khaled Shamaa: Excellencies. It is a pleasure to address the commission today at this special event. Last year the launch of 2015 report, we had accomplished 58th session of the commission and preparations of UNGASS were on the way. At that occasion, I stressed importance of this report as a valuable source of information for UNGASS preparations. One year later, we are celebrating yet another report, and the first special event since the UNGASS, and adoption of UNGASS outcome doc. This joint commitment with over 100 operational recommendations need to be put into practice. For the commission, it is of most important to respect commitments made at UNGASS. Commission ability to deliver a comprehensive balanced approach, attention to health, human rights, development, complimentary to law enforcement and judicial. Most important the commission delivered that by consensus. Over 100 recommendations, tangible progress made in some fields, the WDP continues to pose a problem for wellbeing of humanity. Especially impact on women. Key and important element in this coming period. Also recognise WDP is a shared responsibly, should be addressed multilateral setting. Highlighted need to visibility of intl controlled drugs. In outcome doc, reaffirmed tool of CND as policy body for UN for drug control matters. Closing paragraph of document: necessary steps to put in place operational recommendations. I am convinced of expertise of UNODC, and 2016 Report. I thank you.
Chair: Thank you. Now, the video message of ECOSOC President, Joon Oh
Video-message by H.E. Mr. Oh Joon: Your excellencies. It is my great pleasure to address this special event. This event takes place at important time, with 2030 agenda, ambitious new frameworks. We have shared responsibility to achieving these goals and WDP. CND plays important role. 2016 session of political forum will review implementation of 2030 agenda. No one is left behind. I have invited to contribute, showcasing their diverse contribution. I would like to thank CND for valuable contributions. Outcome document of UNGASS, which was well prepared by CND under leadership of UNGASS core. With 2030 Agenda guiding us, I am certain the Report 2016 to assist member states. Thank you very much.
Chair: I will thank the president next month in person. The commission always considered cross cutting issued, achieving sustainable development. CND diverse contributions to ensure none is left behind. Now, Yury Fedotov
Remarks by H.E. Mr. Yury Fedotov: Good afternoon, excellencies. We are launching the WD Report 2016. We are doing this in 3 UN HQ at CND in Vienna and Geneva simultaneously to underscore the importance of WDP for the entire UN system. The launch of the report follows UNGASS, landmark outcome document, and I want to praise all of you who have participate to this outcome document. It sets out concrete recommendations. Drug users number is steady. Over 200,000 overdoses in 2014, of which, 30-50% involve opiates. Users stable, but within group, but now 29 million drug users, a rise of 2 million since last report. This rise is worrying, as 12 million in prisons, and others live with HIV. Disastrous rise of heroin use in some parts of the world. Amphetamine market, terrorism in some areas. Human rights, gender, stigmatisation, need for criminal justice system and how cultivation and production impact environment. Dark net is examined. The launch today is to mark: world drug report since adoption 2030 Agenda. Report chapter dedicated on sustainable goals in the lens of 2030 Agenda. (Listing of goals…). UNODC stands ready to assist activities and initiatives. The Report also calls for drug policies that are gender sensitive, and environmentally friendly. We must also have effective criminal justice with human rights standards. 2030 SDG, UNODC publication, we are seeing and profound progression of how policy is implemented. I am glad to say, MS are at the forefront of development. I thank you.
Chair: Thank you. Now floor to San Lwin
Remarks by H.E. San Lwin: Thank you, excellencies and delegates. My appreciation to ambassador. I appreciate Fedotov for his remarks. In this report, trafficking is reflected. Opium from areas, spread all over the world. Fighting against illicit trafficking is priority of Myanmar government. Cultivation has been reduced significantly, nevertheless, the challenges are new. New substances. UNODC 2016 report states that challenges are still a serious concern all over the world. Main driver behind opium is crime and poverty. Poppy cultivation is made by low income families. These people need farms to sustain their families. Thank you to Finland and Germany for funds. This assistance supports Myanmar, replacing opium with coffee. In conclusion, drugs pose a major threat, I would like to stress the challenge needs response by all countries. Prosperity, security and rule of law, with SDG, are key efforts to reduce the suffering of millions. Thank you.
Chair: Floor to Susan.
Remarks by H.E. Susan Le Jeune D’allegeershecque: Thank you. Its a pleasure to be here. I would like to thank all UNODC staff who have done excellent work on this report. This report is key to monitor trends. Its special chapter on SDG provides valuable insight in key areas. Efforts to tackle drug harms, involved SDG. Clear from report and UNGASS that we all need to (…) We have already made considerable progress to meet challenge, but as report makes very clear, there is still a lo left to be done. Outcome doc and CND resolutions, contain substantive recommendations: enhancing intl warning system, sharing information on delivering domestic responses. The UK looks forward to continue to work with partners. The report also provides importance of proportionality responses. Use of alternatives for minor drug offences. Excessive use of force is not effective and can over burden criminal systems. This year world drug report, it will help us consider to achieve goals and recommendations of UNGASS doc. With UNGASS behind us, we need positive momentum to implement outcome doc. COmmitments will help us all tackle drug harms. This will help our 2019 preparations. We are willing to taking leading role on NPT, given in key role in responding these substances. We should all consider commitment to other parts of the document. Look ahead of 2019. We approach end of timeline, agreeing to early road map will help us secure successful outcome. MS need to decide what we want to do and take action. I congratulate the UNODC for this report.
Chair: I invite Esbjorn.
Remarks by Mr. Esbjorn Hornberg: Thank you. On behalf civil society task force, I welcome the opportunity to talk to you today. Refer of the UNGASS progress and role of civil society could play for UNGASS. As you know, the task force is an official tool. Our objective to ensure comprehensive structure during the process. Based on feedback, we have been successful. Short version is available on table, more on website. Task force is conducting civil society evaluation, which will be shared with you in due force. Grassroots experience and expertise can go long way to successful drug policies. Prevention, early intervention, recovery, treatment, rehabilitation. Civil society, can make significant contribution. Illicit trafficking and alternative development, achieved through new indicators: SDG. Through research, fostering new partnership, civil society can report on what works or not. Different approaches are effective in different contexts. Strong belief that drug policy should respect human rights, and protect health and wellbeing of families, and communities and society as whole. 2030 is strong framework : drug policies need greater strategy which focus on socio economic development in particular, reducing gender and social equality. Civil society contribution for society. To conclude, civil society stands ready to contribute, by actively fostering the multicultural cooperation. Thank you. I wish you a good summer ahead.
Chair: Floor to Angela Me, who will present the report.
Remarks by Ms. Angela Me: Thank you for opening remarks. Warm thank to my colleagues for hard work. I will start by analysing the global situation in relation to drug use. As you can see, proportion in terms of number:
- Stable global drug use (247 million people who have taken drugs once last year). Important to notice, only 2 million have access to treatment. Problematic: 12 million who inject drugs, 1.6 m live with HIV / half live with Hep C. Increase of drug use disorder, correlated to increase of heroin use (especially USA, large epidemic), also in Europe, increased seizures, increase in overdoses. Belief that huge production in Afghanistan of the past 2 years, is reaching Europe now. Increased supply affecting young people. Young population very affected. USA: you can see how sharp the increase is. There is also analysis of poly-drug use. Poses challenge, in relation to treatment. Need help for several drug uses. You see example of USA, to show that among heroin users, how the amount of drug used within heroin (cannabis, cocaine, opiates). Analysis for years has been specific to each drug, but we need to look at poly-drug use today. Hungary: in 2009, predominantly the drugs injection (heroin, amphetamine) 2012, cocaine that became major injecting drug.
- In terms of cannabis use: global trends of use increasing. True in major markets that are monitoring drug use. Cannabis we continue to monitor, to understand those jurisdictions were new policies in place. Example: trend of cannabis use, proxy for heavy of cannabis. Average increased since 2000 (in USA). Overall, hard to say whether the kind of impact of new policies of cannabis use. So if increase due to policy, or not. Increase started before legalisation. Mix of higher number of cannabis users, but also legalisation. We will continue to monitor, we can take stock and learn impact of policies.
- In terms of drug supply in global level: opium, increase but last year decreased. Mainly because of Afghanistan production.
- In terms of coca cultivation, 2014: level lower than early 2000. Opiates, drop will not affect the supply. Cocaine, the number of users have increased in last years, in parallel in decrease of production. Cocaine users are just using less in quantity. More in relation to recreational use, not heavy use.
- Law enforcement capacities: opiates and cocaine, only 2 drugs we can intercept rates. Interesting: despite uncertainty, law enforcement has been more effective in relation to these two drugs. ATS market expanded and still expanding. Each year new records of seizure.
- NPS, end of 2015, estimated 644 substances. Stable, but new dynamics in its market
- Drug manufacture: Area around Syria very problematic, big seizure coming out of Syrian, surrounding Lebanon and Jordan. You can see how reaching large markets, the Gulf. This is a problematic trends.
- Thematic chapter: link between SDG and drugs. To navigate 179 targets of SDG, demands, and supply of drugs, not an easy path. Divided SDG in 5 areas. We tried to look at each and impact of development into drug use or supply has on development. Drug policy and to understand how drug policy impacted on development. Drug use has high correlation with unemployment. We had to navigate to find evidence, we used different sources, but a lot scientific and academic literature, because not yet various established national statistics in relation of links of drugs and developments.
- Goal 5: Impact of drug on women and gender equality. Minority in drug use. Women have distinct drug use pattern: use more prescription and tranquilizer. And specific needs in terms of treatment. Impact of drug use is larger than men. Special need of women not considered for drug treatment. Violence, additional stigma, this is also true for children.
- Income level and drug use. What we see, overall depends on type of drugs. Amphetamines, equally used in countries regardless of income. While cocaine, more target market in countries with high level of income. How general development initiative can have positive impact: Thailand (large development programs, reduced production of opiates). Historically, Andean programs, they production lowered, but infrastructures also used to increase production of coca. Drug policy effect in development: complex. Afghanistan 2000-2001 ban on opium cultivation – effect of than ban: development of community decreased, many lost jobs, land. That ban had negative impact community. But Afghanistan, government but ban on cultivation of opium but we have build initiatives. Sensitive drug policy has helped to reduce production and negative socio eco impact.
- Environment: cultivation in national parks, and effects of drug trafficking on environment. Central America, cleaning forest for building landing strips to bring in cocaine. Cultivation of drugs, has affected water supply. Drug processing affects environment because of chemical leftovers.
- Violence and drug trafficking: not always inter related. Cocaine is more violent than opiates. This was measured by homicide rates around Afghanistan, Balkans, and Central America. Some countries where high level of homicides with high cocaine trafficking. Why? Area with much more research needed. Differences are related how drug groups are structures and how they are managed. Family managed, or centralised/decentralised. Also, importance of corruption and rule of law.
Criminal justice systems: Global crime rates. Prison over-crowded. Different regions: globally, 30% in prison are there with no sentence. Within the sentenced prisoners, 18% are due to drug offences, 2/3rd because of trafficking.
- Partnerships: donor contribution to item of drugs in terms of OECD data. Donors has diminished.
Chair: Thank you for interesting presentation. Questions are now open.
Ecuador: Thank you. On behalf of Latin American and Caribbean group, we thank you for presentation. We re-integrate that WDP need concrete action and policies. Balanced approach, based on common and shared responsibility. In this context, region would like to highlight chapter 2: WDP and development, which recognises that aims achieving SDG are complementary. Welcome relations between WDP and gender, social exclusion, violation, human rights, and rule of law. To conclude, we are confident that UNODC will continue dialogue.
Mexico: Mr. Chair, your excellencies. We welcome the World Drug Report, two months after UNGASS, landmark moment. In this regard, we highlight its simultaneous presentations in Geneva and New York. We are pleased to see report this year. Mexico stress that economic resources, and human tolls, results have been unsatisfactory. Concluding in report: global market remains unchanged. Appropriate action for women and children. Report this year goes further on impact of cannabis legalisation. The assessment is inconclusive, and Mexico stresses the importance to have more information of this, as well as non-criminalisation of drugs.
European Union: Thank UNODC for excellent work. The EU and its members support a number of project and programmes implemented by UNODC and we will continue in this.
Portugal: This report gives us an up to date vision of the WDP. In larger historical content, we can see good development in some areas. 2016 report issued shortly after UNGASS, and we will have to think ways to implement recommendations. We have been defending evidence-based policies. Reading the report, we see the complexity of WDP and its consequences. In my opinion, the major achievement, was opening scope discussion, by giving more attention to human rights and public health. Door that cannot be closed again.
Pakistan: Thank you. Welcome UNODC, Report,… We believe that international day of the complex challenge of WDP and shared responsibility. Opportunity to reform collective resolve, and step up efforts. We congratulate Fedotov. Following briefing, we have examined it closely. At this point, preliminary observations. Hope to further understanding on illicit drugs. Poverty, rule of law, violence, and other aspects. WDP remains problem, recent report attests to this observation. Women and children continue to face difficulties. Interventions should be comprehensive, in parallel with supply. It is our expectation that there is no place for drug legalisation. We cannot ignore issues of poverty. Sufficient resources are a must. We must give attention to close gap between expectation and results.
Colombia: Thank you. We highly appreciate efforts to prepare this document outside of tradition. Drug use is increasing, prevention, reintegration, may have positive impact of drug use. Also criminal system. Report illustrates complexity of problem. Highest important to work towards better data collection system, emergence of NPS and better means of communications. We welcome chapter 2. Bearing in mind that Agenda will guide system, that clearer than ever, human rights need to be protected. As many have mentioned, time to take action. Actively promote collaboration with all relevant organisations of UN. International day against drug abuse, on what will be a historical day for my Colombia. We will re-iterate commitment to WDP. Better implementation of drug policies, respectful of all human rights. Thank you.
Peru: 2016 Report good for providing overview of WDP. My delegation is pleased to see a chapter devoted to sustainable development, based on economic growth and human rights approach. Fundamental principles of our foreign policy. Allowed social inclusion, with cross-gender approach, with vulnerable populations. Peruvian model of alternative development, is one of our key strategy. Aims to eliminate poverty. Activities away from drug production. Balanced policy, positive result, that surface covered by coca has fallen. They have dropped 13 % from 2013-2014. Cultivated area reduced of 30% since 2012. Regarding important information, we express our concern about preliminary information regarding legalisation of cannabis in opening chapters. Exposure to cannabis, and traffic accidents concerning. Report show that there is no direct correlation between drug trafficking and violence. We believe that this report will have key input.
Afghanistan: Thank you. I would like to thank Fedotov, and other panels for presentations and remarks. Welcome chapter 2, focuses on alternative development of counter narcotic efforts. I would like to share 3 points on drug situation in Afghanistan. 1) Recent reports, suggest 90% of poppy cultivation in Afghanistan in South-East country. Poppy link and terrorist groups. Many terrorist groups continue to benefit from this. 2) High demand in global markets, trafficking and financial flows across region remain important factors behind opium production in Afghanistan 3) socio-econ, and lack of alternative livelihood is big problem. We believe all these factors need a multiple approach. New drug action plan: balanced and sustainable approach. Includes: alternative development, drug treatment and prevention to further good governance. Alternative Development is important aspect. Farmers dependence on poppy cultivation, due to lack to sell alternative products. Any failure to address socio-eco aspect, will continue to drive production. We welcome recommendations. Hope that long-term financial support provided to communities and development of alternative dev programmes.
Russia: Thank you. Our delegation welcomes this report as main source of information for drug-related data. We appreciate the broadening of report. Example: new technologies and Internet for drug trafficking. Remarkable shift of WDP. We examined different national models of drug control. No clear definition. Opiate-substance therapies are illegal in some countries, should not be presented as universal. Satisfaction of some changes, in particular of opiate trafficking.
Chair: Thank you. Questions?
NGO – Goal n.5 important to have a close look to drugs and women. Ask if its foreseen in future,to have gender budgeting when you launch new programmes on drug?
H.E. Ms. Susan: Important question. I know that our colleague in demand reduction section do a lot in balancing of budget for treatment and prevention. Good suggestion for future programmes.
Chair: Meeting adjourned.