There are 3 million drug users in Indonesia. 47% are ‘addicts’. 15% injecting drug users and 85% non-injecting drug users. Cannabis most widely used illicit drug (70% of illicit use). There are concerns at increase of ATS use, and ATS now a bigger concern than opiates. Heroin use is stabilising and to a certain extent decreasing. Addressing ATS is the big issue. Effective drug demand reduction staratgies must be evidence based.