Plenary Session: Item 6. Implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem

Chair: Good morning please take your seats. We will now take up item 6 – Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem – Particularly B supply reduction and C countering money laundering

Chief of organised crime and illicit trafficking branch with UNODC for an intro statement on demand reduction: Agenda item 6B and C. Overview of recent trends as reflected in report. The data analysed suggests that cannabis herb is cultivated in all regions. North Africa, SW Asia; Afghanistan it’s linked to cultivation of poppy. Global seizures remand stable. In 2016 preliminary data, seizures decreased. Decreasing in Western and central Europe, increasing sharply in N Africa and SW Asia. Global opium poppy cultivation increased in 2016 after decreasing in in 2015. Myanmar has seen a decrease. Mexico accounts for 9% of opium poppy. Coca cultivation – Bolivia Colombia and Peru account for great amount. Production of coca in these countries is increasingly trafficked out and further manufactured in Argentina and China and other countries. Amphetamine seizures have increased in past decade mainly in N America and Asia-Pacific regions. 2016 highest level of ecstasy seizures in past decade.

We assist states in countering money laundering. Our work contributes to collective efforts to implement the SDGs in particular goal 16. Highlight UNODC activities:

UNODC continues to work with states to counter money laundering, strengthening interagency cooperation in board management. Operational activities on air cargo trade supply train have commenced. We work with world customs association and Interpol on suspicious passengers. We build capacity with criminal justice associations. We assist member states better address transnational organise crime in particular drug trafficking. We support 3 regional networks under UNODC program. Networking among law enforcement programs provides basis of sharing resources and training. UNODC facilitates regional cooperation. UNODC assists countries through the provision of mentoring assistance on the confiscation of proceeds of crime. Crime does not pay. Under education for justice initiative (E4J), UNODC is analysing teaching modules include drug trafficking. Gender mainstreaming is important to us – gender awareness module is in training package. Women make up 15%/ women need to be thought of women are disproportionately imprisoned for drug offences. UNODC is making efforts to collect data on gender and organised crime under E4J initiative. We have recently published a new drug control resource portal. The database provides access to relevant resources on conventions and relevant publications. Delegates are encouraged to access the portal. Further resources are available outside this room.

Marianne Monier, Paris Pact Coordinator: The Paris Pact Initiative is a global cooperation platform comprising 58 member states and regional organisations of which UNODC is a partner. UNODC as part of the global partnership implements the secretariat. Today, this partnership is the only global cooperation partnership in existence dedicated to opiate issues. A side event took place yesterday opened by UNODC executive director Yury Fedotov and co-sponsored by France and the US. Following record production of opium, the side event was a timely re-affirmation of high level support for technical assistance for the region and beyond. Opium production is a priority that requires a global response. It is an absolute necessity to tackle the global reach of opiates by building further on existing achievements made by the government of Afghanistan while strengthening international and regional support. This was the message highlighted yesterday, involving several regional partnerships and organisations. In this context, the Vienna Declaration adopted in 2012, and endorsed by Ban Ki-Moon, provides a valuable roadmap for strengthening regional connectivity and information sharing between organisations and pillars. UNODC is an active contributor to the Paris Pact, outlined in the Vienna Declaration, through the global programme organised by the UNODC. In supporting the 4 pillars of the Vienna Declaration, expert groups are organised each year under each pillar. Experts identify key priorities in the form of recommendations that are reviewed and endorsed by the partnership. This consultative partnership is overseen by thematic groups of experts. The consultative mechanism comprises a component that is a network of experts. The UNODC global programme in support of the Paris Pact conducted a mid-term evaluation that produced recommendations to improve the efficiency of the partnership and this will be presented to the consultative group in 2018. The Paris Pact coordination unit has drafted this year again a report submitted to the Commission in support of the Vienna Declaration, has been translated into all UN languages. The report highlights how the Paris Pact continues to serve as an advocacy platform, and offers opportunity for global dialogue, allows partners to adapt operational responses and contributes to strategy formulation and high level policy dialogue. The Paris Pact promotes the one UN approach, bringing together range of tools to support its implementation at global level. The Paris Pact has grown into 81 member partnership committed to joint action to combat multitude of threats to achieve development and social outcomes. It is a multi-donor initiative, I would like to take the opportunity to thank them again. However there can never be too much regional and international support to combat opiates. The UNODC executive director and governments for France and Russia, will build on the work of the Paris Pact to support this valuable work.

UNODC: I provide a brief of UNODC Alternative Development program

Alternative development continues to be a fundamental pillar of drug control strategy – this is confirmed in 2016 outcome document. Last 12 months – consolidated technical assistance programs to facilitate dialogue between member states and secretariat.

Myanmar: Short term subsistence crops to coffee crops in Shan state – French coffee organisation. Increased confidence in governments and contributed to creating a enabling program on peace. Now being replicated in DR Laos.

Afghanistan –small scale alternative development based projects to provide evidence based implementation through indicators and SDGs.

Colombia – confidence in UNODC in supporting broad based human development program improving economic environment. We are working with the government to create peace and prosperity in vulnerable communities. UNODC is supporting farmers in voluntarily illicit crop reduction program. UNODC provide technical assistance in other countries. UNODC presented long term alternative development approaches. Importance of promoting policy dialogue to guide the application of alternative development. We are working in partnership with Germany and Thailand as this session in aligning alt development with SDGs. We thank our partners in alternative development.

Chair: I invite delegates to state which subsection they’ll be addressing

Sudan: anti drug strategy in Sudan is balanced in supply and demand reduction. We believe prevention is better than treatment. Over 70 orgs in Sudan are working raising awareness on prevention. We allocate resources to improve our actions. On chemical precursor seizures we work with INCB. We call upon INCB to continue developing this program. Abuse of drugs poses a huge threat in my country, especially tramadol. We spend a lot of trying to seize these substances. Authorities in my country work to include tramadol in list of controlled substances, we need to reduce costs to provide access to essential medicines. We appreciate the UNODC and Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem. We look forward to capacity building in treatment.

Zambia: we cover parts A B and C. we support action to Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem. We work in collaboration with relevant agencies and civil society in implementation of demand reduction strategy. Adopted strategy focuses on early prevention of drugs use. We design various awareness programs targeting schools. We equip parents in identifying drug abuse traits in their children. We have youth development program and help them refrain from indulging in drug use. We have a drug alcohol and substance policy. To strengthen research we implement Zambian epidemiology network on drug use – ZENDU. In an effort to prevent diseases the government to adopt AIDS strategy framework and prioritises HIV and AIDS prevention in Africa. Integration of drug users in public and private capacity. We cooperate in regional programs promoting information sharing on drug supply reduction. Through laws we make available controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion. Increased seizures of controlled substances. Distribution chain is monitored at all points. INCB and local collaboration has been successful. The government initiative provides poor rural farmers with skills to buy down initial risk and reduce poverty. To enhance the fight against money laundering we have criminalised money laundering and continues to enhance local and regional cooperation. Zambia remains committed to implementing this Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem. Multifaceted approaches at all levels are needed.

Namibia: This meeting is significant to all of us as it presents the collective opportunity for member states to assess progress made in implementation Political Declaration and workplan in 2009. Member states need to accelerate implementation efforts. Namibia re-affirms its commitment to UNGASS 2016 outcome document as complementary and mutually reinforcing, to tackle illicit drugs. The special session should enhance capacity to assist member states to implement commitments. Namibia is fully aware that the world drug problem remains a common and shared responsibility that should be addressed in multilateral settings and in full international cooperation. Trafficking in persons, arms, cybercrime and money laundering are also serious challenges that require shared responsibility by all member states. The fight against drugs is a common and shared responsibility that requires a balanced and integrated approach in cooperation as well as addressing the vulnerability of women and girls. We call on member states to abolish the death penalty and urge member states that still have it to put it under a moratorium and take moves to abolish it.

Malaysia: Malaysia is strongly committed to address and combat the drug problem through a comprehensive, balance and integrated approach. The drug control agency works with health and other agencies as well as communities, including in implementation of range of programmes. They involve evidence-based interventions such as ‘My beautiful Malaysia’. In 2016, Malaysia launched the all-out campaign against drugs including omnipresent operations, community empowerment, anti-drug icons through media. It reached out to high-risk areas and community leaders. Malaysia’s strategy places emphasis on rehabilitation, which integrates psycho-social and spiritual approaches. In 2017, Malaysia became the pioneer psycho-therapy for substance abuse, and launched a training manual to train prison officers, and were expanded to rehabilitation centres. It has been recognised and received gold medal awards at international forums. On the treatment and rehabilitation measures for drug dependence, Malaysia underlines need to assess need for drug treatment. Evidence-based tools were used. The Cure & Care Recovery Index is also used to assess dependence. Harm reduction is a feature of the national drug policy, which aims to minimise the range of harms affecting individuals and their communities. Malaysia implements training and education of addiction professionals under the Colombo Plan, and organised an international conference in Malacca. Drug-related problems are insurmountable particularly the use of new psychoactive substances.

Malaysia expresses concern of drug trafficking, especially synthetic drugs, calling for member states to work to combat this. Malaysia is not excluded as a hub for syndicates. Disruption of their trafficking activities need to be addressed with concerted efforts. Malaysia employs its anti-drugs act and legislation against money-laundering to carry out those efforts. Agencies including the maritime agency work together in joint operations to disrupt these trafficking activities, resulting in seizures including dismantling of 18 clandestine laboratories in 2017. Malaysia established an integrated taskforce including armed forces to achieve joint operations and surveillance of organised crime and border activities, to address proliferation of activities including trafficking of precursor chemicals. No cases have been detected of diversion of precursor chemicals. Malaysia works in close cooperation with counterparts, and participates actively in international inititiatives such as the ASEAN airport interdiction taskforce. Diversification of drug markets are indeed challenging. Malaysia remains committed to tackle trafficking and growth of (…)

Croatia: the importance of drug addiction and drug abuse we look forward to implement first national strategy on addiction. Special attention will be dedicated to postponing the age that youth first start taking drugs. In monitoring progress, a database was set up in 2012 with aim of reducing drug demand. Use of heroin is in decline in Croatia and threat of new synthetic substances seems to have bypassed us. NPS use rates above EU average. Profile of NPS user has changed over years. Consumption is higher than number of people in treatment as identified by wastewater analysis. We ask the CND to build better public processes in line with human rights. We believe that opportunities that come with online interventions. Online platforms expand possibility of offering services in rural areas. We could target young people here. Proposed intervention appears to be more cost effective.

Turkey: In the following period, we will assess our progress in addressing the drug problem in accordance with the 3 pillars in the 2009 document. Turkey is a transit country for opiates from Afghanistan as well as a target country for synthetic drugs coming from mainly Southeast Europe. Recently, we have started to receive more synthetic drugs, so it has become our priority and we should cooperate more with Southeastern countries, eg. Bulgaria. As indicated in recent reports, there are alternative routes under Turkey’s control. More than 17 tonnes of heroin, 62 million captagon tablets were seized. In cooperation with Spain, a seizure of cocaine was made, we thank them for their cooperation. There is another project implemented across our provinces.

Japan: I would like to explain demand reduction policy in Japan. Our goal is to make a drug-free society. As all countries carry out their various measures such as prevention, enforcement and treatment. Based on the actual drug situation, we cannot make one strategy applicable to all countries. We understand that some measures on harm reduction are effective in some situations, eg. in combating the spread of infectious diseases. However harm reduction should not be recommended for all countries. The UN should not excessively recommend harm recommendation. Japan has been effective in stemming drug abuse including through social rehabilitation programmes and strict enforcement on methamphetamine abuse. By developing the 5 year drug abuse strategy, Japan through the collaboration of multiple agencies has succeeded by educating young people and communities on the dangers of drug abuse, recognition therapy, and support of families to prevent recurrence of drug use. Japan has 3 proposed pillars: effective education of juridical authorities, improving health capacity, and developing resources for treatment to address dependence

On supply reduction, transnational trafficking groups have been expanding. Methamphetamine seizures have been enormously increasing, and become a huge market, posing a serious threat to society. The drug trade has become hugely profitable. International organisations have had to strengthen collaboration efforts. Information sharing and joint counter-operation have been carried out as part of international cooperation efforts. We held a conference this year with over 100 participants from Asia, Africa and Europe, covering topics on international and regional cooperation to tackle drug trafficking, and enabling participants to exchange views on how to strengthen anti-trafficking efforts. Intelligence and cooperation are the two key elements to fight trafficking groups. Japan will be in close cooperation with other countries to jointly tackle this threat.

In terms of the work of Japan Customs, seizures of methamphetamines have dramatically increased. Japan Customs is enhancing collaboration with other agencies, including through information exchange.

Colombia: My country has had a strong reaction to the issue of drugs, but unfortunately, we are far removed from achieving our target in 2019. If we were to sincerely assess our efforts, we have to say that we have entered into a strategic era of setting unrealistic targets. We haven’t managed to curb consumption and production targets, eg. with new psychoactive substances reported and acreage of coca leaf cultivation on the rise. Producing, consuming and transit countries can now feature all three. We have spearheaded identification and punishment of new crimes, record figures for seizures including 1800 tonnes of cocaine (much higher than previous years, meaning there is less cocaine available abroad). We have to be extremely cautious because organised crime have a high ability to adjust, so we need to adjust as well. Colombia’s armed forces work in collaboration with the US, and trained staff from countries including Honduras and El Salvador. We will not give up this fight. Colombia has more farmers that own their land, in licit production. We are opening up markets for alternative development crops. But we also need help to bring about change but it won’t happen overnight. We have seen 53 years of conflict and very few years of peace. We need strategies in the long and medium term in cooperation with the international community. We have achieved some aspects of the Outcome Document, including in the area of demand reduction where we have created a plan for national health. We need to point to major amounts of heroin, cocaine, stimulants, and addiction-prone substances, and dismantling of criminal groups. As for money laundering and judicial cooperation, we have achieved excellent results. We need to have exchange of information to recover assets. The international community needs to have a final assessment using the 2009 document, it is counter-productive for the international system to continue harping on about unrealistic targets. UNODC highlights the achievement but also the shortcomings in achieving the 2009 plan. We are lacking in data. We need all this valuable input and supplement it to understand the impacts of our efforts. We need to refer to the work of other UN organisations, academia and civil society. We have to establish a new course of action in 2019 to implement the 7 categories of recommendations in the UNGASS outcome document.

Thailand: Following the UNGASS, Thailand launched a new paradigm shift highlighting a health and human rights approach rather than drug suppression, especially where people who use drugs are considered as patients rather than criminals. Drug users are encouraged to access treatment on a voluntary basis. The Thai Ministry of Health takes a leading role in all activities, including in ensuring access and quality assurance, and encouraging workers to refrain from discrimination. The rehabilitation and integration process covers vocational opportunities. Thailand has introduced and initiated to minimise health consequences by piloting in 77 provinces covering IDUs and other chronic users, drug abuse and prevention. We introduced this almost 2 years ago for various groups of people, including measures to affect behavioural management, which can help people make decisions in their daily life. The national drug law has been amended, taking account of human rights and proportionality; it provides opportunity for drug users who are not traffickers to not be prosecuted nor imprisoned, but to receive appropriate treatment instead, after they complete it they can return to a normal life with no criminal record. Despite this, much remains to be done. Prevention is more cost effective than treatment. Thailand will continue to call for partnerships in these efforts.

On supply reduction, our region remains threated by the proliferation of new substances, and smuggling of precursor chemicals. Two important factors that contribute to problems in the region include the smuggling of precursor chemcials in the Golden Triangle. The Safe Mekong initiative launched by China and Thailand and involving cooperation of Laos and Myanmar aims to reduce the supply of drugs in the region, highlighting our successful cooperation. Use of the internet, including abuse of youth and women in drug trafficking, are concerns. In ASEAN, Thailand has cooperated with UNODC including in use of drug profiling techniques which helps in pursuing investigations and detecting substances. Disrupting the drug trade via use of the internet is vital. We ask UNODC to consider conducting training workshops covering these topics. The concept of alternative development has received increasing attention and in international fora in recent years. It allows us to address the root cause of drug problems including poverty. The Guiding Principles for Alternative Development has assisted member states in these efforts. It is expected that these guidelines together with member state efforts with support more effective AD programmes in future.

As drug traffickers have no borders, international cooperation must address this. Drug traffickers often make use of loopholes in legislation. Thailand promotes collaboration with IFUs worldwide. At same time, we need to make sure we don’t allow criminals to escape. Thailand encourages sharing of best practice to help interdict traffickers. Existing drug laws allow investigators to identify real intent of accused, and attach great accountability to the rule of law, especially in relation to vulnerable groups such as women and youth. We apply the Bangkok Rules, and working with women in prison to reduce re-offending and support their re-integration. This is a joint project with UNODC and UNICEF. We support international cooperation and urge UNODC to play active role to ensure stronger international cooperation.

Algeria: We have seen emergence of synthetic drugs in recent years. We are conducting a study into drug use in university in 2018, and are carrying out an evaluation of 2017 measures. Our prevention efforts is targeting vulnerable groups including young people, awareness-raising amongst private associations, training and outreach. We provide training to addiction professionals and plan to ramp up those efforts, including launch of licensing initiatives. We had 9,827 patients seeking help in 2012 and over 12,000 in 2016. We are developing a mental health plan with help of WHO, which will cover drug dependence. All of these efforts display our commitment to work hand in hand with the international community with respect to implementation of the 2009 Political Declaration and Workplan and 2016 UNGASS Outcome Document. With respect to drug use, it is a concern due to presence of international drug trafficking networks in my country. Algeria is at the crossroads between Europe and the Sahel. Drug use has taken on worrying proportions in recent years, in line with spread of drug problem across the world. There has been a reduction in cannabis seizures. 126 tonnes in 2015 down to 52 tonnes in 2017. This is thanks to the efforts made by various stakeholders to combat drugs. Large quantities are transiting through Algeria, arriving from the South and Southwest of the country. These drugs are then smuggled out of the country by selling small quantities of cannabis with majority exported to other countries. Trafficking and sale of illegal substances has risen in recent years, including consumption of ecstasy. We are seeing the involvement of organised crime groups in trafficking operations. We remain committed to cmbating the world drug problem in accordance with the 3 pillars of the 2009 Political Declaration. This is based on holistic approach and cooperation with multiple stakeholders. In addition to strengthening our current arsenal we have been working on acquiring surveillance monitoring and equipment, awareness-raising with young people, organising open door days, travelling to conduct events in schools, and healthcare for addicts and also localised outreach. All of this is supported by technical and scientific bodies and also law enforcement. Scientific research has shown that cannabis strength has increased, based on forensic data and data from investigations, we have been able to improve our intelligence profiles. We have also been able to identify networks nationally and in the international arena. We are committed to combat the world drug problem by bringing together law enforcement and investigative techniques and through eradicating money laundering, and by investigating drug traffickers and arresting them. This is not enough given rise in modern technologies. We need to continue our efforts. We have organised meetings with law enforcement to organised activities to eradicate trafficking and stepped up cooperation with other agencies and countries in the region. The tri-ennial plan sees eradicating drugs as one of the priorities in Africa, and seeks to carry out a coherent response. The world drug problem is a common shared problem that must be address in concert. The 2009 commitments are a good foundation for our efforts in this area. Mutual legal assistance is an important part of our efforts.

We adopted a law for the prevention of crimes, based on mechanisms set up by the Financial Action Taskforce to monitor suspicious banking transactions. The Bank of Algeria also has several directives to implement this in the banking sector. The text of our laws also provides for international cooperation, witness protection, and measures for anti-terrorism financing. With respect to bilateral agreements, including with France. We also adopted a law on remote trials.

UNAIDS: Madam President, excellencies, civil society partners and colleagues, thank you for this opportunity to address the 61st Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). UNAIDS recognizes that the overarching purpose of drug control is first and foremost to ensure the health, well-being and security of individuals, while respecting their human rights at all times. People who use and inject drugs are among the groups at highest risk of exposure to HIV, but remain marginalized and out of reach of health and social services. Unfortunately, since our statement during the 60th Session of CND last year, the statistics on people who use drugs have not improved. Almost 12 million people worldwide inject drugs, of whom one in eight (1.6 million) are living with HIV and more than half (6.1 million) are living with hepatitis C. A total of 1.3 million people are living with both hepatitis C and HIV—in other words, more than 80% of people who inject drugs and who are living with HIV are living with a coinfection. According to the 2017 World drugs report, there are now 222 000 hepatitis C related annual deaths and 60 000 AIDS-related deaths among people who inject drugs. People who use drugs are 24 times more likely to be living with HIV than people in the general population, and among prisoners HIV prevalence is up to five times higher. And while we are seeing the number of new HIV infections going down in almost all population groups, incidence among people who use drugs is going up. Global new HIV infections among people who inject drugs rose by 33% from 2011 to 2015. The evidence on harm reduction is overwhelming. Harm reduction works—it works as treatment and as prevention, and it improves the health and social well-being of people and societies. To put it in simple terms, harm reduction saves lives.Y et the coverage of harm reduction programmes remains insufficient.We also know that policies that criminalize and marginalize people who inject drugs are failing to reduce new HIV infections.Of 158 countries where injecting drug use is reported, over half (78) do not offer opioid substitution therapy and more than a third (68) still do not provide needle–syringe programmes.Between 2010 and 2014, only 3.3% of HIV prevention funds went to programmes for people who inject drugs. This in spite of the fact that we know that harm reduction approaches that prioritize people’s health and human rights work and are cost-effective. Evidence supports the need for a shift in the global approach to drug use. The UNAIDS report Do no harm: health, human rights and people who use drugs shows what works to reduce the impact of HIV and other harms related to drug use. Countries that have moved away from laws and policies that are harmful to people who use drugs and that have increased investment in harm reduction have reduced new HIV infections and improved health outcomes. This is not a new message from UNAIDS. But it is a message that we will continue to share. UNAIDS supports a people-centred, public health approach to reduce HIV, hepatitis C and other vulnerabilities among people who inject drugs. A comprehensive package of interventions, including needle–syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, provided in a legal and policy environment that enables access to services, prevents infections and reduces deaths from AIDS-related illnesses, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections. And the social benefits exceed the treatment and prevention costs. Putting in place services without changing laws and policies will not work. Legal and policy reform must be based on evidence. Ending punitive and repressive approaches and protecting health and human rights will guarantee greater access to services for the people most in need. It will also greatly reduce the harms of drug use. An enabling and legal environment must be accompanied by investments in evidence-informed services. If the annual investment in harm reduction in low- and middle-income countries increases to US$ 1.5 billion by 2020, just a fraction of the estimated US$ 100 billion already spent each year to reduce the supply of and demand for narcotic drugs, we would be able to reach 90% of people who inject drugs with HIV prevention and harm reduction services. As we implement the Sustainable Development Goals, harm reduction must be an integral component of universal health coverage. Drug policies and programmes must be people-centred, evidence-informed and based on human rights. Extrajudicial killings and other violence against people who use drugs must end. We call on all United Nations Member States to redouble their efforts to fulfil their commitments made in the 2016 Political Declaration on Ending AIDS and the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on the World Drug Problem outcome documents to intensify national efforts to end the AIDS epidemic and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. We need approaches that put people at the centre and restore dignity to people who use drugs. We cannot end the AIDS epidemic if we do not end it among people who use drugs.

Mexico: We promote a better proportion in the allocation of resources for demand reduction, based on multi-disciplinary viewpoint. Prevention and treatment come attached with a high cost. We have to assess the impact of our efforts. Under this chapter of the UNGASS document, many countries are lagging behind. We also need to assess the prevention and treatment efforts on a cost-benefit basis. Yet another aspect that stands in the way of demand reduction in unilateral decision making, such as legalising marijuana. My country is in favour of open dialogue that is multi-faceted so that we can hear from others provided this is all in steps with the international instruments, which are against unilateral decision making. We reiterate our plans that support compliance with public health and human rights. In keeping with the recommendations of the UN General Assembly, we must address the issues raised in the UNGASS outcome document, to promote healthy lifestyles etc. We are convinced that with open-ended dialogue and shared targets, we will be able to come to grips with issues that bring about more positive impact on health.

Nigeria: Treatment, rehabilitation and social re-integration are core to our efforts. Our treatment centres across the country have been upgraded in line with best practices. Officers have been trained in accordance with guidelines, but our capacity is still insufficient to meet need and we call for more support. We call on continued efforts to tackle stigmatisation of drug users, and need for gendered and tailored interventions. The Nigerian delegation will continue to give a voice to women due to both gender and cultural issues. We will continue to use multi-media platforms to reach out to the public. The national inter-ministerial committee on drug control continues to allow for a multi-sectoral and multi-faceted approach to drugs. We are working to reach vulnerable groups including PWID, and people in prison. Nigeria notes with serious concerns new trends of drug abuse. Drugs are now increasingly cut with adulterants unknown to drug users, causing severe consequences for public health. I will now outline our supply reduction efforts.

Switzerland: Exchanging information will be a good opportunity to gather different views to improve public health standards, given that drug abuse constituts a public health problem worldwide. Heroin-assisted treatment fails to be mentioned in the international treatment standards. OST is employed throughout Europe, but is not effective for a small number of user groups and for them, heroin-assisted treatment has shown to be helpful. Experts describe heroin-assisted treatment as a critical step forward. Switzerland expected this to be included in the standards. The use of naloxone was mentioned as an effective measure, but there was no mention of drug consumption rooms. We welcome efforts by the UNODC to establish an expert group on gathering data.

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