Plenary: Item 10. Implementation of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem

Chair: In the Ministerial Declaration, Member States committed to reporting on the 2009 document and 2016 document. Consideration of this item during this regular session enables us to consider this matter further, beyond last week’s debates. The Secretariat has made available reports on the situation of drug abuse and trafficking. Also before the Commission is the report of the UNODC ED. The relevant decisions of the PCB of UNAIDS are transmitted to the CND in a note on promoting coordination and alignment between the CND and the PCB of UNAIDS. Before we address the three sub items, I give the floor to Jean Luc Lemahieu of UNODC.

Jean Luc Lemahieu, UNODC: I would like to share considerations on progress by MS in implementing the commitments of the 2009 Political Declaration and Plan of Action, 2014 Joint Ministerial Statement and 2016 UNGASS Outcome Document. The CND requested UNODC prepare a submit to the CND biannually on the basis of the ARQ a single report on action taken to implement the Political Declaration and Plan of Action. The last one was 2018. It evidenced inter alia to increase prevention, treatment, care and rehabilitation services. Scale up control on controlled medicines. Judicial cooperation. And AD programmes in line with UN principles. In the UNGASS Outcome Document, consisted over 100 operational recommendations, MS reaffirmed commitment to implement 2009 document. At CND, focused on sharing specific experiences undertaken by MS. The Ministerial Declaration takes stock and acknowledge progress made in implementing past decade’s commitments. Let me share examples of enduring challenges: Drug markets are evolving at an unprecedented speed; which is why prevention and treatment are more important than ever. Cultivation and production of heroin and cocaine have reached record high. New psychoactive substances have emerged strongly. Nonmedical use of regulated prescription drugs diverted or illicitly manufactured is becoming a significant threat; in addition to the ongoing opioid crisis in epidemic, nonmedical use of tramadol in Sub-Saharan Africa and Middle East. Challenges to measure the progress and efforts to be continued. Despite improvement, general lack of data. It remains difficult to produce comprehensive picture of use of different drugs. Synthetic drugs can be manufactured essentially anywhere and markets have never been larger. Progress in some MS submitting reports: 100 (2008) – 118 (2018). But we need to maintain efforts as some parts of the world aren’t covered.

Gilberto Gerra, UNODC: On demand reduction. On the last 10 years, growing prevention efforts that are not effective, but science-based ones are also growing. Out of 103 countries, very low level of coverage. 1/3 of the countries provide good science based methodology for prevention of drug use disorders. In terms of evaluation, minority of countries do it. Process some, impact almost none. The level of coverage of these methodologies is very low. Most do information and media campaigns that are not very effective. We hope to see those with very good evidence increase. In terms of prison setting services, even a more minority of country offering treatment in prison. Almost flat in terms of social rehabilitation and aftercare services. In psychosocial treatment, a significant increase. In terms of coverage, no increase. For HIV, some good news: increase in ART provision, for instance; but not so much. We urge the necessity to create large-scale parents mobilisation. Parents should provide kids attachment, a special form of relationship to make them safe and grow up in a good condition without being vulnerable for substance use disorder. Behind drug use disorders, problematic relationships within families. Early care environment might affect expression of genes. Support parents to dedicate time to children, warm and supportive parenting styles, agree rules in home life and be involved in life of children. Which is why we launched Listen First: demonstrate you care. When you involve parents in prevention you obtain much better improvement. Emotional and physical abuse happening in the family are also incredibly problematic and parents should receive help. To reduce dropout, provide free meals, include school consecutiveness and engagement. Those in poverty stay less in school. School has a protective effect on drug use. Support kids in realising full potential without discrimination. In Southeast Europe, if you engage teachers in life skills education, increase prospects in reducing initiation to marihuana, for instance. Reliable information is important. Not taken information from media and social media, but from science. Important to develop appropriate curriculums. If you look to access to treatment. 39% recognised in need of treatment, only 61% visit a service; 7.1% receive treatment. Ramp up outreach. Small mobile units with nurses, social workers, peers who may be in recovery themselves. Essential health services must include naloxone, NSP. Outpatient services are not necessarily expensive. Important that people in trouble find an open door, understanding their problem and addressing them to health services. Make available medications. You cannot treat patients without essential medication, which tend to be cheap. Plan in the design of the treatment system small facilities residential for people not responding to outpatient services. 11 years of evaluation in Australia on treatment outcome show if you provide integrated treatment, heroin dependence and use drop significantly. Same for sharing needles and also developing HIV/HCV. Sometimes we ask for more money. This study I’m presenting about optimising resources: substantial reductions in HIV and AIDS related deaths if appropriate allocation for resources: OST, NSP, treatment for HCV. People with drug use disorder don’t need to go to be punished, to go to prison. We need to find alternatives to prisons, accepted by the Conventions. Services for pregnant women to minimise damage to the foetus. Today, we publish a new discussion paper: Treatment of Stimulant Use Disorders: Current Practices and Promising Perspectives.

Chief Organized Crime and Illicit Trafficking Branch, UNODC: Since the last session of the Commission, UNODC has assisted supply reduction efforts through the provision of training and capacity building, on the basis of the Conventions and international human rights norms. Efforts by UNODC in this regard are underpinned by crosscutting objectives on criminal matters. In the area of illicit drug trafficking, in 2018 UNODC enhanced the capacity to adjudicate drug trafficking cases in the CRIMJUST programme through strengthening international judicial cooperation. Two transnational drug trafficking cases were brought to prosecution as a result of these efforts. Both have links to Latin America and Asia and connected to other crimes like wildlife trafficking and production of illicit drugs. 2018 was the most successful year in the container programme in terms of drugs seized. MS seized over 61 thousand kg of cocaine, 9XX of heroin, 2XXX of cannabis, inter alia. UNODC held a workshop on institutional cooperation along the cocaine route in Accra. And specialised course on strengthening cooperation along the cocaine route of LatAm, Caribbean and West Africa in Buenos Aires. In law enforcement training, informal operating procedures by experts of the international and regional law enforcement cooperation organisations to agree on a set of so called informal standards related to the procedures, security of criminal intelligence in coordination with multinational operations targeting crime and drug trafficking. Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Senegal and Fiji supported to draft legislation on drug control. And legislative support to Dominican Republic and Mozambique. It is still a small percentage of trafficking, darknet has increased significantly. Training to law enforcement professionals on cryptocurrency investigations. Human rights are at the core of the work of the UN. IN the delivery of its technical assistance, UNODC incorporates the promotion of gender equality, non-discrimination and participation/inclusion of vulnerable group + strengthening of criminal justice system and rule of law. The organised crime and illicit trafficking branch constantly tries to mainstream gender considerations in all activities. Ex. Hiring a gender expert to reveal and provide advice to ensure programme is gender sensitive. Container programme promotes participation of women. UNODC also provides member states with valuable tools to assist practitioners. UNODC electronic drug control repository, expanded to include 761 pieces of legislation from 171 countries; most members of the UN. National regulatory frameworks for the illicit cultivation, manufacture, trade, distribution of drugs.

Eduardo Ríos, Sustainable Livelihoods, UNODC: Alternative development continues to be recognised as a fundamental pillar of the drug control strategy of the conventions as confirmed by the 2016 outcome document. UNODC continues to consolidate technical assistance programmes and strengthens roles on policy dialogue with member states and broader secretariat. Progress: Afghanistan – Implement small scale agricultural programmes. In 2018, 26,000 farmers benefited. Support for government. 20% reduction of poppy cultivation in the area of intervention. Myanmar – Shan state seen French company Malango working with Shan-state coffee growers to facilitate access to markets according to organic and fair trade standards. Promotion of farmers under principles of equality, transparency. The programme has provided legal livelihoods and increased confidence in governance but also environmental sustainability. Enabling environment for peace. Replicated in Lao PDR. Since 2016, UNODC has been working with farmers in Northern Lao for cultivators to move to coffee production. Colombia – Government and UNODC implement broad-based human development programme to sustain social fabric, development and (…): Strengthen capacity, national integration and peace and reconciliation in the country, particularly in vulnerable communities. Supporting farmers listed in voluntary programmes. We also promote policy dialogue on implementing AD. Sustainable funding continues to be a challenge and we urge MS to provide longterm support. UNODC would like to thank AD partners. (…)

Thailand (On item a): In line with 2009 and 2016 documents, we have tried to improve our strategies towards public health and more balanced approach. We believe that sustainable solutions require no single measures. Particularly, for the past three years, we have successfully improved our drug treatment system taking into account medical and social aspects. The Ministry of Health has become an important counterpart, supervising the whole treatment system. We also provide aftercare (…)

Thailand (on item b): x

Chile: OP36 targets are fully valid. Chile has implemented strategies to control the supply and demand of illicit drugs and psychotropic substances, precursors and money laundering. This is a growing challenge, as demonstrated by NPS. In Chile, we have updated regulations to strike a balance between different legislations and subject to control new substances. We included 161 new substances recently. A legal amendment will include synthetic precursors and substances used as adulterants. With regards to public policies linked to supply control in recent years, we have implemented the Norther Frontier Plan and National Antidrugs Plan 2014-2018. Based on these experiences, with uneven results, we designed our policies 2019.-2021 to reduce the number of organisations and criminal groups linked to organised crime by providing exchange of information and the promotion of interinstitutional cooperation to prevent and tackle organised crime. We need a multipronged approach. Plan of Action distinguishing between macro zones in our country. Action Plan against trafficking of persons. Plan of Action against migrant smuggling. Action plan against trafficking of resources. One of the most notable successes was the establishment by the Prosecutors office of an autonomous body in Chile: Drug trafficking observatory, that publishes info on trends and threats annually, allowing to have reliable current information. Report is online. Through this instrument, we detected increase of trafficking of synthetic drugs and new psychoactive substances. Those phenomena, highlighted also in the recent UNODC report are a source of worry. We want to tackle them under the principle of common and shared responsibility to overcome the producing/consumer country outdated paradigm. It’s a transnational dynamic phenomenon governed by the laws of the market. We have joint the network of antidrug prosecutors of Iberoamerica to have better cooperation and international assistance improving our capacity of analysis and response. This has been a success to share information and experiences and gain knowledge of realities in other countries. Fosters links between countries. With regards to plans, our plan of action to the control of precursors is fundamental to deal with drug trafficking by tackling production capacity of criminal organisations. The Ministry of Interior recently launched a taskforce to control precursors with different agencies to improve efficiency. Since 2013, Chile has an anti-money laundering strategy with some 20 bodies participating to counter the damages of this crime.

Belarus: Countering narcotic drugs is a national priority. Growth in drug crime reached 46% over the year. At the same time in 2014, increase of overdoses from NPS and new drugs. IN order to stabilise the situation, in 2014 we overhauled the system to counter drugs adopting a presidential decree, that uses a comprehensive approach including medicines education, awareness raising and law enforcement. Enhanced criminal penalties involving trafficking. We have adopted provisions for the rapid interdiction of NPS and NPS traffickers. More clearly defined narcotic drug analogues and basic structure, enabling us to cover 98% of known psychoactive substances. Measures to prevent access to website that have become a significant obstacle. In Belarus, up to 90% of all psychoactive substances sold are done so contact free. We have created a unified system helmed by the Ministry of Interior, which have allowed us to reduce drug crime. Number of overdoses has fallen 4 times. But drug threat prevails. Share of psychotropic substances of total share of market (4%) but main drug is hashish and marijuana. Young people involved. More underground. Use of internet. Drug trafficking involvement of young people. Mostly on websites, social media and communication tools. Cannabis already marketed not as a drug but as a consumer product. Global antidrug policy must be based on complete implementation of the drug control agreements. Hazard in attempts to change scheduling of cannabis and cannabinoids. We require a unified approach to prevent drug criminals exploiting loopholes in legislation.

Japan: The rapid proliferation of amphetamine type stimulants provides an increase in trans-national drug trafficking industries. The highly addictive nature of methamphetamines poses a serious threat to the health of our societies. The drug trade has served as a major source of income for human trafficking and criminal organizations. We must work together to tackle these problems. Three initiatives: 1) National enforcement agency have been tracking down drug trafficking organisations through information sharing and has hosted the inter-Asian drug trafficking conference for over 20 years, this year they welcomed over 120 participants not only from the Asia-Pacific region but also Africa and Europe. It included information sharing to tackle drug trafficking. It enhanced the global co-operation to tackle drug trafficking organisations which we feel is in line with 2019 ministerial statement.

2) Japan customs utilises passenger name record to target passengers deemed to pose a higher risk to trafficking drugs etc. Screening of high-risk passengers is conducted while custom control for low risk passengers is also implemented. Co-operation is important to facilitate the tracking of these high-risk passengers. This co-operation is important but it is often difficult to obtain information from EU airlines. It is important also to get access to information from boats and cruise ships. One of Japans priorities beyond 2019 is to stop the spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Due to the advancement in technology NPS production is being ramped up and distribution is being more easily facilitated. It is important that we enhance international cooperation to prevent the production and distribution of NPS otherwise we will soon see a global epidemic. Japan highly values the scheduling of 9 new NPS at this CND and we must further work together to broaden the control of these substances internationally. Japan is also willing to share its experiences and provide information on NPS to other nation states. To conclude, cooperation and sharing information is vital to tackling drug trafficking

3) I would like to introduce our measures on demand reduction. It is very significant for international for a to make a drug free society and Japan has been cooperating with this continuously. Here we recognize some remarkable progress in the demand reduction measures compared to supply reduction considering the situation in our own countries, as all countries carry out their various own measures. Based on the actual drug situation and on the cultural and social background we cannot make one situation applicable to all countries. We know that some measures included in harm reduction are effective and important in certain conditions and such projects carried out in countries effected by infectious diseases should be promoted however these should not be recommended to all countries and should not be used excessively. Japan has been able to stabilize domestic drug abuse by implementing programs based on progressive policies through rehabilitation and preventing methamphetamine abuse. First, by education young people, families, and local communities on the dangers of drug abuse and promoting intervention through normative behaviours. Japan implemented policies to prevent crime by carrying out effective education through judicial authorities. Through developing health centres and human resources for treatment for drug dependence. We trust that there are practices in individual countries’ and we must implement best practices in each country. We seek a balanced approach to each countries’ situation.

Algeria: I would like to begin with 10A. We have made efforts to reduce demand. Based on 2009 declaration and 2016 UNGASS outcome document. Our national strategy takes the form of multi-sectoral activity on the ground focusing on the most disadvantaged communities on the ground. Healthcare for addicts has 42 intermediate addictology centres and 30 rehab centres free of charge. We have provided clinics with staff through a specialized clinic in addictology for GPs. Law 10/48 prioritizes a medical approach and sees addicts as ill and needing help. Law 18/11 which passed in July 2018 places psychotropic substances under special administrative and technical controls with specific registries for monitoring prescription implementation. None of these texts create a barrier to access to medicine for patients that need them, for example with morphine-based medication used in surgery. Regarding 10B reducing supply as Algeria is a transit country for traffickers we face a diversity of issues. Quantities from our western border frontier are transported out of the country to Europe with a small amount maintained in Algeria. With respect to our location we would like to reiterate our support to unwaveringly combat the world drug problem. We have implemented strategies to tackle the world drug problem, which involves using state bodies and civil society organizations. We build capacity within agencies that tackle drug trafficking and rise to the challenges we face. Another strength of our strategy takes the form of implementing policies preventing drug use. We have a structure and operational mechanism in place which aims to work to raise awareness among drug consumers. The drug problem has acquired concerning proportions across the world due to massive profit to be found in trafficking. In Algeria cannabis seizures by agencies have fallen. In spite of this fall which is thanks to law enforcement efforts, various trends continue to be a source of concern as trafficking and use of psychotropic substances has increased over the same period. The world drug problem is our common and shared responsibility needed to be tackled in interlinking manner. In regard to 10C we are interested in the matter of countering money laundering and judicial co-operation and we have adapted our legislation in line with international conventions. A new criminal taskforce has been created along with a new seized assets agency and witness protection programme. The laws have also covered judicial co-operation which has also covered money laundering including 40 bilateral agreements on this topic as well as 50 bilateral agreements on extradition. I would like to underline that the new challenges that are faced in transnational crime which require that we intensify and enhance co-operation in order to achieve positive results.

China: There is no supply without demand so reducing demand is the top priority. In the past 10 years preventative education activities have been carried out in schools, and with families and communities as well as wider societal education campaigns. Nearly 80 million students have received drug education. By actively and effectively promoting drug prevention and education, cases of new drug users has slowed significantly, In Hong Kong it fell 13,000 to 6,000 between the years of 2009 to 2018. The Chinese government has included the drug users in the medical insurance plan for treatment. 39,000 drugs rehab agencies have been established. 505,000 drug users are in treatment. There are 283 rehab centres. More than 378,000 people receiving counselling and treatment annually. HIV patients has dropped consistently. In Macau new HIV cases stemming from injecting dropped from 66% to 10% of infections. Supply reduction efforts over the past 10 years has led to 1.24 million drug cases cracked. We have intensified efforts to intercept drugs at source. In 2018, 465 tonnes of meth and 1.38 tonnes of ketamine from the golden triangle seized. 5-10% of heroin in China comes from Afghanistan. We have cracked a number of cases with number of people arrested dropping significantly in recent years and prices of major drugs rising three-fold with meth being 7.5x higher in price than 2015. Australia cracked just one case of meth coming from China last year, while there were no seizures in New Zealand. In the area of anti-money laundering and judicial co-operation China has signed 50 intergovernmental drug co-operation agreements and established bilateral co-operation agreements with 30 countries. We have carried out intercountry co-operation projects with foreign intelligence agencies and have signed agreement with financial institutions of 33 countries. China recommends that the information database and registry should be established by UNODC.

South Africa: In March 2009 CND adopted political declaration and 10-year plan of action to enhance international cooperation. States made an undertaking to collectively counter the world drug problem within the framework of international drug control agreements. Adoption of this gave South Africa fresh impetus to adopt administrative framework to tackle ill effects of drugs. To promote health and welfare South Africa has been, and continues to be, guided by the 3 major drug policy conventions. South Africa efforts have yielded great achievements on many fronts from internal law enforcement to preventing drug trafficking at our borders. We have deepened awareness campaigns about the ill effects of drugs and expanded availability of treatment across the country. Challenges still remain as South Africa has become an origin, transit, and destination for trafficking. This is undermining security, health, and has led to increased activity of violent groups and other criminal groups. This has led to increase in drug abuse and addiction, especially those from a poor background and upbringing. It is time to take stock of the 2009 action plan and decide on a future International Drug Control framework. Co-operation with regional groups. South Africa welcomes adoption of ministerial declaration outlining commitment beyond 2019.

India: In relation to 10A the ministry of social justice looks after drug demand reduction. India recognizes that drug abuse is a psychiatric, social, and medial problem. We recognize the need for family and community-based approaches to tackling the global drug problem. The Government of India has developed national action plan for drug demand reduction through education, de-addiction, and rehabilitation. We have been focusing on preventative education, awareness and capacity building, treatment and rehab, quality standards, focused intervention, skill development, and livelihood support. Education programs being targeted at vulnerable and at-risk groups in communities, educational settings, and slums. Community-based intervention, outreach activities, and drop in centres will start soon. The services for de-addiction and rehabilitation are being provided by NGOs with the support of the government. Between 100 and 125 thousand report to these centres annually in addition to those in hospitals. Movements have been made to bring treatment centres into prisons and youth homes. The ministry of social justice has recently concluded a national survey on patterns of drug use in India. A household survey was conducted in all 36 states, with 200,000 households visited in 186 districts. We have used this data to channel our awareness campaigns through print, electronic, and social media. We continue our celebrations of the 26th of June as the International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illegal Trafficking. We have recently launched a scheme of awards in outstanding service in anti-drug and alcohol abuse work. We are further working towards achieving our goals as set out in the outcome document of UNGASS. Drugs leave nothing in their trail but devastation.

Qatar: Qatar is proud to have implemented tasks by providing funding for regional and international anti-drug projects. Our report also refers to implementation of Doha declaration, a program which is essentially financed by Qatar to protect young people from drugs and crime and strengthen rule of law. We welcome the vision of the ministerial declaration last week which reaffirm previous political declarations, all of which are mutually reinforcing. We must respect the principle of common and shared responsibility. We will continue to provide more support to CND, UNODC, and INCB in order to strengthen their roles. Yesterday, an important issue was raised with a request made to amend paragraph 735 of INCB 2019 report.  The fact that a state can ask for rewording of a specific paragraph of this report is dangerous precedent to be set and the INCB report should not be open to amendments of states as this would undermine the credibility of CND and the authority of the INCB. We call on CND to condemn these comments.

Sudan: We would like to pay tribute to role played by UNODC in researching and studying world drug problem and we are committed to upholding 3 anti-drug conventions. We are seeking to intercept illicit drug crops being cultivated as we are seeing increasing numbers of trees being cut down and land being used to grow drugs. We are also seeing increasing trafficking of narcotic drugs and NPS, and we are implementing efforts to counter the world drug problem, but we are facing major challenges. We are tackling the major cannabis crops that we see in the forest areas we see in the highly biodiverse south of our country which is very rich in water due to year-round rainfall. Access to this area is very difficult. Increasingly we are seeing that farmers are growing cannabis here, and so we are working to stop this. In 2017 we confiscated 205 tonnes and in 2018 we confiscated 175 tonnes of cannabis. It is impossible to tackle this alone and we need alternative development programs and additional crops. We call on support from our international partners in implementing these measures. In 2018 we have faced increasing healthcare challenges particularly for drug users. We are lacking in healthcare centres for addicts due to absence of funding, staff and structure within the healthcare system. Doctors in standard hospitals who lack expertise in the specific area are treating addicts. Thanks to US cooperation we have shut down captagon factories and made arrests in the international criminal network. We are involved in the INCB PEN (Pre-Export Notification) system where we are able to track precursors for illicit drugs. We have implemented laws regulating financial markets and stock exchanges to help tackle the issue of money laundering, with any suspect transactions being referred to law enforcements. We have set up a unit to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing with co-operation from law enforcement. The world drug problem is changing and evolving is creating very serious challenges that require multi-dimensional responses. In relation to supply reduction, we have seized over 18 million tramadol pills, as we are seeing large quantities being shipped in through containers. Large ships are being used to smuggle pills across the Red Sea into Sudan, while small fishing boats are then used to transport drugs into neighbouring counties. More than 100,000 tablets have been seized en-route to Europe between 2017 and 2018. Smuggling of captagon by air and container ship has hit 14 million tablets smuggled. In 2016 khat, cocaine, and cannabis trafficking began to be seen. We further realize that we need to work on reducing supply and demand at the same time. We have implemented awareness raising sessions, in conjunction with the UNODC, and based on international standards provided to education providers, company offices, and in residential areas. We have utilized exhibitions, publications, our national radio station, and civil society engagement to implement this. For the first time since 1960, we now have more than 70 organisations involved in countering drug problem and demand reduction. No country can do it alone and there is a need for increased international co-operation. We should continue co-operation to uphold international conventions. In terms of the African and Arab dimension, we are in the Africa Union and league of Arab states. Through these channels we have implemented more than 30 bilateral conventions. These have included information exchanges and country visits taking place under bilateral conventions. Our overall aim is to protect humanity as a whole and we are doing this with very little support from other countries, so we call on our international colleagues to provide further support as well as the UNODC through their AIRCOP programme and further working together to uphold international conventions and we look forward to maximising co-operation in the near future.

Nigeria: We call on enhanced emergency co-operation in line with conventions from 2009 and 2015. In Nigeria we have implemented state drug control committees to promote implementation of drug demand reduction programs in 2018. There are drug control committees in all 6 of the geographical areas of our country and we are implementing policies to further expand this committee. We have also successfully implemented our “Unplugged” program. These programs have been adapted to the Nigerian perspective and were carried out across selected schools with children age 10-14 years. To scale this up the capacity of teachers in secondary level education institutions is being improved. We have seen great progress in treatment of drug dependent persons, training for medical personnel and other service providers. We have also implemented plans for former Boko Haram members to create a safe corridor for deradicalization with offers for drug abuse interventions. We are further finalizing national drug treatment guidelines which will boost service delivery, the programs are mindful of effective practices which promote integration of former drug users within society. Many former drug users have since been offered jobs which suit their skills. The program is acompanied by the review of some of the demand reduction programs, and despite modest progress made, estimates put drug use at 14.4% which is not encouraging and may point to the need for a review of strategies. We like to express our position for the UNODC to support our programs and appreciate the EU funding we have received. Cannabis cultivation and trafficking has led to high quantities of seizures which accounts for significant quantity of 17% of drugs seized annually. There is an easy availability of cannabis for illicit trade. The national drug law enforcement agency identified and destroyed hectares of cannabis farm land and in these areas we have begun to implement crop substitution programs. Synthetic opioids, especially tramadol, are widespread and we have seized 560,300 tablets, many of which are above the prescribed 100mg levels. On top of this, Nigeria has discovered and dismantled 16 methamphetamine laboratories and enhanced law enforcement mechanism to deal with the evolving trend of high dosages of tramadol tablets. We need increasing co-operation on the multilateral and interregional level to tackle opportunities for drug traffickers travelling from Nigeria to research source countries including with Thailand and Malaysia. We have implemented policies which screen individuals travelling from Nigeria to transit and origin countries and are pleased to say that in 2018 no people who passed the screening process were arrested on drug related offences.

Korea: Our main issue in the Republic of Korea (ROK) is the reduction in supply of methamphetamine. The so-called golden triangle has long been associated with narcotics, particularly heroin, and we are recently seeing changes in these drug transit patterns. In ROK we have seen that methamphetamine is becoming more affordable and accessible. It is being smuggled from the golden triangle into other countries in the Asian region. The golden triangle is becoming a key source for meth to the Asia-Pacific region countries. We have been engaging in work to deter the supply of methamphetamine by preventing the trafficking of precursors which are coming mainly from India and China. It is imperative in order to stop supply that we stop flow of precursors. We call on international organizations to provide financial and technical support to shut down these methamphetamine labs. It is clear that an international joint crackdown committee is needed to prevent drug trafficking. Almost all Asia-Pacific custom administrations are scheduled to carry out comprehensive anti-narcotic operations for six weeks this year starting on May 6th. The ROK encourages support between international organizations and law enforcement agencies in tackling the problem of golden triangle production. We remain aware of the context of the 2016 political declaration and we have been making nationwide reports to implement a plan of action on international co-operation to counter the world drug problem. Money laundering acts have been implemented at national level to go along with collective response of global society to tackle the issues at hand with money laundering. In line with this, we have been seeking further bilateral treaties on extradition with small states. We have begun implementing programs facilitating judicial co-operation and improving our state practices resulting in combatting crimes through increased bilateral co-operation. We would like to take the time to express deep appreciation to UNODC and INCB for enhancing global cooperation.

Indonesia: We, as the Indonesian delegation, are setting out to achieve our goal to achieve society free of drug abuse. We have implemented a prevention program in line with our national policy the develop an anti-drug education module for students, families, workers, and communities. Another activity in prevention we are engaging in is a TV program to educate children to know the dangers and trap associated with abusing drugs, which is viewed by 50 million people. We have instigated community development programs to change marijuana plantations with other consumable products such as coffee and corn. We have increased our treatment and rehab programs and in the past 5 years 100,000 people have been rehabilitated in outpatient centres and with opioid substitution treatment with methadone and buprenorphine. We have also begun needle and syringe exchange programs based in primary healthcare centres and targeting areas with high prevalence of injecting drug use. We are also ensuring our policies enable us to meet the specific needs of women who use drugs. We are aware that the global drug problem has had huge negative effects on our society and economy. It is unfortunate that drug trafficking in our country is widespread throughout all levels of society. To tackle this, strict law enforcement measures are used to hold people accountable for crimes. More than 58,000 suspects were arrested and more than 4.7 tonnes heroin, 152 tonnes of cannabis, 2,900,000 grams of ecstasy confiscated. 7,737,000 US dollars in assets were also seized. The abuse of drugs continues to pose serious threats to human life and to the health, and economic wellbeing of individuals. In 2018, 37 memorandums of understanding were established with internal national organizations. We have increased regional co-operation, with law enforcement officer trainings across regional countries aimed at securing orders of all countries conducted regularly.

Canada: We are committed to a comprehensive approach to drug control, which balances public health and safety considerations while emphasizing demand and supply reduction measures. The diversion of precursor chemicals remains a significant challenge in Canadian and global drug control. The manufacturing of deadly opioids is a massive concern so precursors from legitimate industries to traffickers are being tracked and prevented. We have increased training for law enforcement to aid in detecting the trafficking of these precursors. We have boosted efforts in implementing legislation with the view to achieve the goals of the 2009 declaration. To achieve these efforts the government of Canada has implemented several policies to increase the control of important instruments to drug dealers and traffickers, including pill presses and capsules. These instruments must now be registered with the Health Board in Canada and passed on to law enforcement before entering the country. Regarding money laundering, we remain committed to a strict regime to uphold integrity of Canada financial system and introduced measures to deal with the efficacy of financial sanctions regime. We are aware of the fact that NPS continues to be significant challenge for international drug control community and as such we continue to encourage countries to submit information on incidences of NPS seizures. Opioid overdose and deaths driven by illegal fentanyl and analogues remain a huge issue fuelled by the NPS market and the trafficking of their precursors. Legislation amendments to customs acts provides border agents with an increased ability to check smaller suspect packages if they believe they contain quantities of opioids or opioid analogues. We have further worked to equip officers with naloxone kits and developed guidelines for handling of toxic substances. These have been accompanied with opioid de-stigmatization and awareness campaigns for law enforcement. We would like to reaffirm that we are fully committed to working multilaterally to stem flow of drugs into Canada.

Gambia: We would like to reaffirm out work with bilateral and multilateral partners, with whom we have partnerships built on respect and sovereignty. We have worked on bilateral agreements with the Russian Federation to combat the illicit traffic of drugs and precursors, especially precursors to NPS. We have been providing technical assistance in the form of training to law enforcement authorities. We have recently signed operation memorandum of understanding with our counterparts in Canada. Within the Senegal-Gambia region and beyond we continue to face challenges. We recently conducted exercise to stem to flow of cocaine trafficking though Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. The exercise included searching 980 people, resulting in the seizure of stolen vehicles, assets, and drugs, along with three children being rescued as possible victims of human trafficking. The abuse of illicit drugs continues to pose a threat to human society. We believe that campaigns to raise public awareness remain one of the most effective tools to tackling this. We recognize the global importance of implementing victim centred approaches. In 2015, a government agency undertook mass campaigns on community outreach and workshops with village elders, schoolchildren, and teachers. There was huge significance in including these groups as over 58% of persons arrested with drug fall between ages of 13-38. Youth contributes over 60% of population for our country. We continue to see that the abuse and trafficking of illicit drugs is on the rise. This issue is very complex and involving multiplicity of actors and activities. Organized crime cannot be addressed without holistic approach through collaboration between national agencies, and civil society, along with other stakeholders, to develop advocacy tools. We are galvanized by the level of higher-level policy support within the country for these policies. We have begun to ensure the work of agencies and outreach programs is shifting towards prevention and other similar strategies. This has included the implementation of community service for young and first-time offenders. We would like to now express our support for the postponing of the consideration on cannabis as it accounts for more than 85% of drug seizures annually in Gambian. Cannabis use exposes Gambian society to violent crimes, and we have seen more than 2,000 patients suffering with psychosis from cannabis abuse in 2018 alone.

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